1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Soran University, Erbil, Iraq
Receive Date: 26 March 2015,
Revise Date: 22 April 2015,
Accept Date: 30 April 2015
This research was conducted to find out the effect of peppermint and basil as natural feed additives on broiler performance. The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of the peppermint (Mentha pipreitae) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) as a feed additive on live body weight (LBW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, abdominal fat and liver weight characterization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were selected and divided into 7 treatments and 3 replicates based on completely randomized design. One day-old chicks were reared for 35 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Chicks were divided into seven treatments (30 birds each). Each treatment contained three replicates of 10 birds. Each group of birds were supplied with 0% (T1-control) 0.5% (T2), 1.0% (T3) and 1.5% (T4) of peppermint and 0.5% (T5), 1.0% (T6) and 1.5% (T7) of basil as feed additive and control group was supplied with neither peppermint nor basil in their ratio. As a result of this study, mean LBW, BWG, FI, FCR and liver weight against T4 (1.5% peppermint) was significantly (P<0.05) higher for broilers in the other group. But had there were non significant effect on the carcass, carcass yield and abdominal fat. Findings of the present study suggested that feeding peppermint and basil tend improve the growth performance and FCR of the broilers.
Feed additives derived from plants, also called phytogenic or phytobiotic or botanicals can be included in animals. Among these natural additives, aromatic plants, their extracts and their essential oils have been examined due to their advantages over the antibiotics as growth promoters. They are residue free and generally recognized as safe diets to improve their productivity and the properties of the resulting feed and animal products (Windisch et al. 2009). Antibiotic growth promoters have made a tremendous contribution to the profitably of the poultry industry. Recently, it has been reported that the use of antibiotics as a growth promoter in chicken has caused some unwanted results (Botsoglou and Fletouris, 2001). Therefore, most antibacterial performance promoters have been banned due not only to cross-resistance but also to multiple resistances (Hertrampf, 2001). Antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have increased the concern about the potential public health problems and food safety is more seriously considered than before. Therefore, poultry nutritionists are being challenged to develop an alternative for antibiotic growth promoters and the search for alternative feed supplements has been stepped up. Considerable attention has been paid to medicinal herbs as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters (Ibrahim et al. 2005). Herbs or products including plant extracts, essential oils or the main components of the essential oil are among the alternative growth promoters that are already being used in practice (Ocak et al. 2008). There is evidence suggesting that herbs, spices, and various plant extracts have appetizing, digestion-stimulating and antimicrobial properties. But there is only limited evidence about whether their inclusion as a solid herb material would have growth promoting effects in live birds. Chemical investigations have shown that peppermint and basil contains various active compounds, such as ﬂavonoids, tannins, saponin, glycosides, terpenes and steroids (Pattnaik et al. 1997). The aim of this study was to describe the effects of dietary inclusion of dry peppermint (Mentha piperita) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) as growth promoter supplementation on growth performance and carcass characteristicsparameters in broiler chicks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animal and diets
Animal material in this research were 210 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks which were obtained from local hatchery and placed in closed house in the poultry experiment farm of Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Turkey. A total of 210 three day old, because for the first three days chicks was fed standard diet after that unsexed broiler chicks were randomly distributed into seven treatments each treatment in the same weight. Each treatment divided into three replications each replication contain 10 chicks. They were wing-banded, weighed and randomly housed in floor pens with wood shavings. Continuous lighting was provided throughout the experiment. The ambient temperature was gradually decreased from 32 ˚C on day 7 to 25 ˚C on day 21 and was then kept constant. There were 3 each dietary treatment, each consisting of 3 replications. The replication was a pen with birds so that each treatment had 30 birds. Peppermint and basil used in current study were obtained from the Kahramanmaras, Turkey.The basic analysis results were shown some nutrient of contain in peppermint and basil in Table 1. Chemical analysis for each plant was conducted at feed laboratory, USKIM (Research and Development Centre for University Industry Public Relation) and feed analysis laboratory in department of Animal Science for main contents (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, dry matter and ash). The ingredients and composition of the basal diet (starter from 3 to 21 days of age, grower from 21 to 35 days of age) were presented in Table 2 and Table 3. All birds used in the experiment were cared for according to applicable recommendations of the national research council (NRC, 1994). All diets were fed in mash form. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. The diets were made iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous by adjusting the other ingredients. Total N was analyzed was estimated (CP=6.25×%N). Ash was determined by the AOAC (1995). Crude ﬁbre (CF) was determined by VELP raw fibre extractor (Van Soest et al. 1991). The soxhlet method was used for total fat determination using ether for oil extraction AOAC (1995).
Table 1 The nutritive values of peppermint and basil
The peppermint or basil leaves were purchased commercially as dried herb supplements. All diets were fed in mash form. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. Feed intake per replicate was calculated weekly and used to calculate. The dietary peppermint and basil for each treatment as fallowing: T1 (control group chicks fed the standard diet (S.D), T2 (chicks fed standard diet include 0.5% peppermint (5 g/kg), T3 (chicks fed standard diet include 1% peppermint (10 g/kg), T4 (chicks fed standard diet include 1.5% peppermint (15 g/kg), T5 (chicks fed standard diet include 0.5% basil (5 g/kg), T6 (chicks fed standard diet include 1% basil (10 g/kg), T7 (chicks fed standard diet include 1.5% basil (15 g/kg). Feed intake per pen was calculated by week and used to calculate the feed to gain ratio. Individual body weight was recorded each week. In end of experiment; birds were slaughtered by cutting the throat and jugular vein using a sharp knife near the first vertebra. From each replicate 2 birds (each treatment 6 birds) were picked for eviscerating to calculate the dressing percent without the edible giblets (abdominal fat, heart, liver and gizzard) after recording their total live weight.
The data (weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and characteristics of carcase and gut) obtained from experiment analyzed by Statistical Package programme (SAS, 1999) with a general linear model procedure for ANOVA. Differences between means were analyzed with Duncan’s multiple tests. The significant difference statements were based on the possibility (P<0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 4 refers to the effect of different levels of peppermint and basil on totally broiler performance. The different level of peppermint and basil had significant (P≤0.05) effect on BWG, FI and FCR.
Table 2 Composition experimental diets in starter periods of experiments (as feed basis (kg))
At the treatments T1, T2, T3 and T5 showed significant (P≤0.05) increases in BWG as compared with other treatments, but there were non- significant effect if compare between T2, T3, T5, T6 and T7, but T4 which give lowest BWG at the totally BWG. At the totally broiler on T1, T2, T3, T5, T6 and T7 achieved highly significant (P≤0.05) increase on FI as compared with T4 treatments. At the treatments T1 showed significant (P≤0.05) increases in FI as compared with T4, but there were non-significant effect if compare between T1 and T2 and T3 and T5 and T6 and T7, but T4 which give lowest FI. There were non-significant (P>0.05) effect if compare between T1 T2, T3, T4 and T5, but this groups showed significant different (P≤0.05) as compared with T6 and T7 on FCR. At the treatments T6 and T7 showed significant (P≤0.05) showed high value FCR as compared with other treatments. However there were non-significant if compare between T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, but this groups showed the best value as compared with the other treatments. Table 5 refers to the effect of different levels of peppermint and basil on broiler performance at the final day we use final LBW because have not tools and place to slaughter chicken in the 35 day we wait 2 days extra until organizing tools and place. The different level of peppermint and basil significant (P≤0.05) had significant in final LBW and liver weight at the final day of age. But different level of peppermint and basil had were non- significant effect in carcass weight and abdominal fat and carcass yield at the final day of age. At the final day of age, the broiler on T1 and T5 achieved highly significant (P≤0.05) increase on LBW as compared with other treatments. But there were non-significant differences between T1 and T2 and T3 and T5, T4 and T6 and T7, T2 and T3 and T5 at the final of liver weight. At the final day of age, the broiler on T6 achieved highly significant (P≤0.05) increase on liver weight as compared with other treatments.
Table 3 Composition experimental diets in grower periods of experiments (as feed basis (kg))
Table 4 Effect of peppermint and basil on broiler performance
The means within the same row with at least one common letter, do not have significant difference (P>0.05).
SEM: standard error.
BWG: body weight gain; FI: feed intake and FCR: feed conversion ratio.
But there were non significant differences between T1 and T5 and T7, T2 and T3 and T4, T1 and T5 and T6 and T7 at the final of liver weight. At the treatments T5 showed significant (P≤0.05) increases in liver weight as compared with other treatments, but there were non- significant effect if compare between T1 and T5 and T7, T2 and T3 and T4, T1 and T5 and T6 and T7, but T2 which give lowest liver weight at the final day of age. The results revealed that the dietary treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the body weight gain and these results were in parallel to the findings of Amasaib et al. (2013) who used spearmint as feed additive to the diets of birds. The findings of the present study were also in the line of (Galib andAl-Kassie,2010), who found insignificant effect of addition of peppermint on broiler body weight, but with improving performance compared to the control.
Table 5 Effect of peppermint and basil on broiler carcass characteristics
The means within the same row with at least one common letter, do not have significant difference (P>0.05).
SE: standard error.
LBW: live body weight.
Same results were noted by (Demir et al. 2008) concerning the effect of spearmint on broiler body weight. The results of Amasaib et al. (2013) revealed that the dietary treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on feed intake. The insignificant effect of addition of spearmint to the basal diet may be due to the fact that, the diets were iso-caloric and it is expected that the feed consumption could be similar or may be due to the similar environmental during this period. Durrani et al. (2007) were reported the similar results that mean body weight gain. The three level of infusion used in this study have shown increased body weight gain compared with control group, but the best level that had highest effect was that of no control. The findings of this research is supported by the results of Al-Ankari et al. (2004) who reported that wild mint (Mentha longifolia) inclusion to broiler diet resulted a significant increase in mean body weight gain. The findings of this experiment could also be correlated to the findings of Durrani et al. (2006) who reported that broiler diet containing medicinal plant (Curcuma longa) resulted in higher weight gain as compared to control. In addition, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of peppermint and basil were also reported by several researchers (Ali, 1999; Uma-devi, 2001; Padurar et al. 2008). Similarly, the supplementation of poultry diets with aromatic plants have a stimulating effects on digestive system of the animals through the increasing the production of digestive enzymes and by improving the utilization of digestive products through enhanced liver function (Hernandez et al. 2004). Present results are in agreement with the finding of Cabuk et al. (2006) in the importance effect of active substances in the medicinal and aromatic plants (cinnamate and eugenol) as an active substances and digestive stimulators, also its effect as antimicrobials, especially the intestinal microbes that located in the digestive system. Murray et al. (1999) reported that the improvement in body weight may be due to the presence of fat soluble, unidentified factors and essential fatty acids in medicinal and aromatic plant, or due to stimulating effect on the digestive system of broilers (Hernandez et al. 2004). Such improvement may be due to the anti-spasmodic and carminative properties of therapeutic and similarly antipyretic, antispasmodic, stomachic antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Hussain et al. 2008). These finding were disagreement with those of Azoua (2001) who noted that adding fenugreek to broiler diet resulted in increased body weight. Also, feeding different type of medicinal and aromatic plants supplementation significantly (P<0.05) affected feed intake value during the experimental period. Broiler fed basil, parsley and fenugreek seeds had the lower feed intake value during 42 days of age while there are insignificant differences appeared when chicks fed fenugreek seeds during 21 days as compared with control groups. The improvement in feed intake with the addition of MAP could be due to essential oils and their main component which stimulated the appetizing and digestive process in animals (Cabuk et al. 2003). Abaza (2007) indicated that fenugreek seeds decrease feed consumption. There was no significant difference in FCR showed between fenugreek, parsley and control groups at 21 days of age. While chicks fed the diets supplemented with basil at levels 3 g/kg had the best FCR value at the two ages as compared to control groups. These results agree with the finding of El-Gendi et al. (1994) who indicated that there was an improvement in feed conversion with feeding herbal products as feed additives that could be attributed to their effect on improving the digestibility of dietary protein in the small intestine. The results of Toghyani et al. (2010) were in parallel to the findings of Al-Ankari et al. (2004) who observed the beneficial influence of wild mint on broilers productive performance but later in another study Ocak et al. (2008) failed to monitor any significant effect of dry peppermint on broiler performance and carcass traits. Al-Beitawi and El-Ghousein (2008) also reported the positive effect of feeding black seed to broilers on body weight, FCR and some carcass characteristics. Those results agree with Rabia (2010), who reported that chicks fed basil diets had significantly heaviest body weights than those fed the control and fenugreek diets. They increased as inclusion level increased. This could be attributed to the presence of essential oils in basil. Several researchers have also reported improved body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Also feed intake was not significantly (P>0.05) different. However, there are numerical differences in feed intake. The slight numerical differences in feed intake of the treatments over the control are in agreement with the Herb Society of America (2004) which states that basil has appetizing properties. This has a positive implication to feed industries and farmers alike, as the feed miller is interested in profit accrued from bulk sales. Feed conversion and live weight were also found to be significantly (P<0.05) different. This result agrees with Rabia (2010), who reported that chicks fed basil diets had significantly heaviest body weights than those fed the control and fenugreek diets. The results of this study support the observations of Spirling and Daniels (2001) who reported that mint has a positive effect on digestion and can strongly affect feed intake. These results could also be supported by the findings of Mimica-Dukic et al. (2003) who reported that pharmacological properties of wild mint were resulted in increased intestinal motility, total bile secretion, hepatic anti-oxidant status and feed intake. There is an evidence to suggest that herbs, spices and various plant extracts have appetite and digestion stimulating properties and antimicrobial effects (Kamel, 2001). Amasaib et al. (2013) showed the effect of spearmint on FCR which was found to be insignificant in the first five weeks of age, but it is significantly affected by addition of spearmint in the sixth week. This may be due to change in environment during this week and increasing of bird’s age. Al-Kelabi and Al-Kassie (2013) reported that feed intake was affected by addition of a sweet basil powder. Present results agreed with the findings of Cabuk et al. (2006) who found significant and linear reduction in feed intake due to sage extract. Rabia (2010) indicated that feeding different types of MAP as feed additive significantly affected feed intake value during the experimental period, while Abd El-Latif et al. (2004) found that the lowest values of feed intake and best feed conversion ratio with the addition of 0.5% chamomile flower to the Japanese quail feed diets. The results in this study were in contrast with the findings of Erener et al. (2010) who found that supplementation of black seeds increased feed intake of broiler chicks. Moreover, the results of that study were in contrast with Cabuk et al. (2006) found that feed intake to be improved with the addition of MAP and attributed to essential oils and their main components which stimulate the appetizing and digestive process in animals. The lowest values of feed intake in this study occurred in the groups those treated with sweet basil powder, these may be attributed to the strong smell and sharp taste of the extract since these are properties known to characterize antioxidants in basil plants (Telci et al. 2006). Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed feed conversion ratio among treated and control groups in the three periods, Narahari et al. (2004) reported that basil leaves and other herbs be added in laying hens diet improved the egg weight, feed efficiency and health of hens. Also daily body weight gain was found there is a significant (P<0.05) differences between treated groups and the control in the daily body weight gain. These results are in agreement with many published research works (Craig, 1999; Triantaphyllou et al. 2001; Abdo-Zeinab et al. 2003; Soliman and Abdo-Zeinab, 2003; Al-Kassie, 2010). These results were in agreement with the findings of Lee et al. (2003) determined an increase in relative liver weight for birds given thymol, but this was seen only at the age of 21 d and not at 40 days that led increases of body weight. The leaves of peppermint also contain many important B-complex vitamins like folates, riboflavin and pyridoxine and the herbs are an excellent source of vitamin-K (USDA, 2012). A significant role in maintaining epithelial lining membrane of the organs and systems then increase their effectiveness (Vendrell et al. 2001), thereby improving the feed intake, FCR, body weight and body weight gain, also herbal because of their high percentage fiber content which led to reduce the speed passage of food into the gastro-intestinal tract and thereby increase the rate of digestion and absorption of feed materials (Naji and Kabro, 1999). Galib and Al-Kassie (2010) showed the effect of peppermint on liver weight. They also reported that liver weight of control group was higher than those of the other groups. No differences in abdominal fat deposition were found in treated and untreated groups. Findings of the present study are supported by Hernandez et al. (2004) and Ismail et al. (2004), who reported no influence of treatment on weight of liver, in broilers, fed herbal plants extracts. Abbas (2010) presented that feeding of 3 g/kg of fenugreek, parsley and basil seeds had not significantly affected liver, carcass and abdominal fat.
Using the ratio of peppermint and basil showed no significant effect on broiler performance, but it is not effect of harmful. However, feeding broilers a peppermint diet resulted in significant improvements in growth performance compared to the control. The addition of peppermint to the diet could be an alternative to the use of antibiotics as a growth promoter in poultry production.
This study was funded by BAB (Scientific Research Projects Section) of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University and were obtained from the Ismael Ali Ismael’s Master Thesis. The authors would you like to give thanks to Prof. Dr. Emin Ozkose for their supports.
Abaza I.M. (2007). Effect of using fenugreek, chamomile and radish as feed additives on productive performance and digestibility coefficients of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 27, 199-218.
Abbas R.J. (2010). Effect of using fenugreek, parsley and sweet basil seeds as feed additives on the performance of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9(3), 278-282.
Abd El-Latif S.A., El-Yamany A.T. and Eman A.F. (2004). Evaluation of using different levels and sources of medicinal herbs in growing Japanese quail diets. Egypt J. Nut. Feed. 7(1), 69-81.
Abdo-Zeinab Z.M., Soliman A.Z. and Barakat O.S. (2003). Effect of hot pepper and marjoram as feed additives on the growth performance and the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Egypt Poult. Sci. J. 23(1), 91-113.
Al-Ankari A.S., Zaki M.M. and Al-Sultan S.I. (2004). Use of habek mint (Mentha longifolia) in broiler chicken diets. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3(10), 629-634.
Al-Beitawi N. and El-Ghousein S.S. (2008). Effect of feeding different levels of Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) on performance, blood constituents and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7(7), 715-721.
Al-Kassie G.A.M. (2010). The role of peppermint (Mentha piperita) on performance in broiler diets. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 1(5), 1009-1013.
Al-Kelabi T.J.K. and Al-Kassie M. (2013). Evaluation of sweet basil powder plant (Ocimum basilicum) as a feed additives, on the performance of broiler chicks. Iraq J. Vet. Med. 37(1), 52-58.
Ali M.A. (1999). Effect of probiotics addition to broiler rations on performance and some blood constituents. Egypt Poult. Sci. J. 19, 161-177.
Amasaib E.O., Elrahman B.H.A., Abdelhameed A.A., Elmnan B.A. and Mahala A.G. (2013). Effect of dietary levels of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on broiler chick’s performance. J. Anim Feed. Res. 3(4), 193-196.
AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Azoua H.M. (2001). Effect of hot pepper and fenugreek seeds supplementation on broiler diets. Ph D. Thesis. Alexandria Univ., Egypt.
Botsoglou N.A. and Fletouris D.J. (2001). Drug Residues in Foods. Pharmacology, Food Safety and Analysis. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
Cabuk M., Alcicek A., Bozkurt M. and Imir N. (2003). Antimicrobial properties of the essential oils isolated from aromatic plants and using possibility as alternative feed additives. Pp. 184-187 in Proc. 2nd Nation. Anim. Nutr. Cong. Konya, Turkey.
Cabuk M., Bozkurt M., Alcicek A., Akbaþ Y. and Küçükyýlmaz K. (2006). Effect of a herbal essential oil mixture on growth and internal organ weight of broilers from young and old breeder flocks. South African J. Anim. Sci. 36(2), 135-141.
Craig W.J. (1999). Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70(3), 491-499.
Demir E., Kilinc K., Yildirim Y., Dincer F. and Eseceli H. (2008). Comparative effects of mint, sage, thyme and flavomycin in wheat-based broiler diets. Arch. Zootech. 11(4), 54-62.
Durrani F.R., Sultan A., Marri M.L., Chand N. and Durrani Z. (2006). Effect of wild mint (Mentha longifolia) infusion on the overall performance of broiler chicks. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 10(7), 1130-1133.
Durrani F.R., Abidullah N., Durrani Z. and Akhtar S. (2007). Hematological, biochemical, immunomo-dulatory and growth promoting effect of feed added wild mint (Mentha longifolia) in broiler chicks. Sarhad J. Agric. 24, 661-664.
El-Gendi G.M., Ismail F.A. and El-Aggoury S.M. (1994). Effect of Cocci-Nel and Lomoton dietary supplementation as herbal growth promoters on productive performance broilers. Ann. Agric. Sci. Moshtohor. 32, 1511-1528.
Erener G., Altop N., Ocak H., Aksoy S. and Ozturk E. (2010). Influence of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) and seed extract on broilers performance and total coliform bacteria count, Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 5, 128-135.
Galib A.M. and Al-Kassie M. (2010). The role of peppermint (Mentha piperita) on performance in broiler diets. Agric. Biol. J. North Am. 1(5), 1009-1013.
Herbs Society of America. (2004). Basil: An herb Society of America. GuideKirtland, Ohio. Available at: http//www.herbsociety.org/basil/bmedic.htm.
Hernandez F., Madrid J., Garcia V., Orengo J. and Meglas M.D. (2004). Influence of two plants extracts on broiler performance, digestibility and digestive organs size. Poult. Sci. 83, 169-174.
Hussain A.I., Anwar F., Sherazi S.T.H. and Przybylski R. (2008). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food Chem. 108, 986-995.
Ibrahim K.A., Mahmoud Faten A. and Abd Elhalim Haiam S. (2005). Comparison of the efﬁ cacies of commercial probiotics on growth performance, carcass characteristics and some plasma constituents of broiler chicks. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J. 8, 1-18.
Ismail A., Marjan Z.M. and Foong C.W. (2004). Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chem. 87, 581-586.
Kamel C. (2001). Tracing modes of action and the roles of plant extracts in non-ruminants. Pp. 135-150 in Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. P.C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman, Eds.NottinghamUniversity Press, Nottingham, UK.
Lee K.W., Everts H., Kappert H.J., Frehner M., Losa R. and Beynen A.C. (2003). Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 44(3), 450-457.
Mimica-Dukic N., Bozin B., Sokoviæ M. and Mihajloviæand B. Matavulj M. (2003). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils. Plant. Med. 69, 413-419.
Murray R.K., Granner D.K., Mayes P.A. and Rodwell V.W. (1991). The Text Book of Harpers Biochemistry. Applecton and large. Norwalk, Connecticut / Loss Altos, California.
Naji S.A.H. and Kabro A.H. (1999). Directory Laying Hens. Office gift for printing and publishing, Baghdad, Iraq.
Narahari D., Kirubakaran A., Ahmed M. and Michelraj P. (2004). Improved designer egg production using herbal enriched functional feeds. Pp. 350 in Proc. 22nd World Poult. Cong. Istanbul, Turkey.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA.
Ocak N., Erener G., Ak B.F., Sungu M., Altop A. and Ozmen A. (2008). Performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dry peppermint (Mentha piperita) or thyme (Thymus vulgaris) leaves as growth promoter source. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 53, 169-175.
Padurar I., Paduraru O. and Miron A. (2008). Assessment of antioxidant activity of basilica herba aqueous extract in vitro studies. Farmacia. 160(4), 402-408.
Pattnaik S., Sub Ramanyam V.R., Bapaji And M. and Kole C.R. (1997). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aeromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios. 89, 39-46.
Rabia J.A. (2010). Effect of using fengugreek, parsley and sweet basil seeds as feed additive on the performance of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9(3), 278-282.
SAS Institute. (1999). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 7.0. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
Soliman A.Z., Ali M.A. and Abdo-Zeinab M.A. (2003). Effect of marjoram, bacitracin active yeast as feed additives on the performance and the microbial content of the broiler’s intestinal tract. Egypt Poult. Sci. J. 23(3), 445-467.
Spirling L.I. and Daniels I.R. (2001). Botanical perspectives on health peppermint: more than just an after-dinner mint. J. R. Soc. Promot. Health. 121(1), 62-63.
TelciI., Bayram E., Yilmaz G. and Avci B. (2006). Variability in essential oil composition of Turkish basils (Ocimum basilicum). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34, 489-497.
Toghyani M., Toghyani M., Gheisari A., Ghalamkari G. and Mohammadrezaei M. (2010). Growth performance, serum biochemistry and blood hematology of broiler chicks fed different levels of black seed (Nigella sativa) and peppermint (Mentha piperita). Sci. Direct. 129, 173-178.
Triantaphyllou K., Blekas G. and Bosko, D. (2001). Anti-oxidant properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 52, 313-317.
Uma-devi P. (2001). Radioprotective, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of the Indian holy basil, Ocimum sanctum (Tulasi). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 39, 185-190.
USDA. 2012. Nutrient data for fresh peppermint. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, National Agriculture Library, USA.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Vendrell A.M., Hernandez J.M., Llaurado L., Chierle J. and Brufau J. (2001). Influence of source and ration of xanthophyll pigments on broiler chicken pigmentation and performance. Poult. Sci. 80, 320-326.
Windisch W., Rohrer E. and Schedle K. (2009). Phytogenic feed additives to young piglets and poultry: mechanisms and application. Pp. 19-38 in Phytogenics in Animal Nutrition: Natural Concepts to Optimize Gut Health and Performance. T. Steiner, Ed. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.