Serological and Molecular Detection of Akabane Virus in Iran

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord,

2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of Animal Science, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

The present study was conducted on sixty healthy female domestic ruminants that suffered from still births or abortion, to find sero-positive cases and also to determine the probable role of uterine tissue in diagnosis of akabane viral infection and viral persistency. Because of this, a serological test (ELISA) and molecular (RT-PCR) diagnostic methods were used to find the seropositive cases and also the presence of the akabane viral genome in uterine samples. Among 2400 head, sixty female animals (20 cattle, 20 sheep and 20 goats) with a history of still births or abortion (suspected group) and sixty healthy ones (control group) were selected and referred to the slaughter house for further evaluations. Blood and uterine body samples were taken and stored at -20 and -70 ˚C, respectively. At the beginning of the experiment all serum samples were tested for brucellosis and 3 sheep of the suspected group and 1 sheep of the control group were positive. The remaining samples were selected for further study. Results of ELISA showed that among 17 suspected sheep only one of them was positive for akabane virus and among 20 suspected goats only three of them were inconclusive. It’s notable that no positive or inconclusive cases were found in suspected cattle and also the control group. The prevalence rate of akabane virus antibody among 57 suspected animals was 1.75 percent. RT-PCR assay was conducted on uterine tissues from the suspected animals and results showed that all samples were free of the akabane genome. According to the obtained results the presence of antibody against akabane virus in suspected sheep and goats was proven or substantiated for the first time in Iran.

Keywords


Ahourai P., Gholami M.R., Ezzi A., Kargar R., Khedmati K., Aslani A., Rahmani F. and Zarrin-Naal E. (1992). Bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly outbreaks attributed to akabane virus infection in Iran. Arch. Inst. Razi1, 51-56.

Brenner J., Tsuda T., Yadin H. and Kato T. (2004). Serological evidence of Akabane virus infection in northern Israel in 2001. J. Vet. Med. Sc. 66, 441-443.

Inaba Y. and Matsumato M. (1990). Akabane Virus. Pp. 467-480 in Virus Infections of Ruminants, Z. Dinter and B. Morein, Eds. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Jennings M. and Mellor P.S. (1989). Culicoides: biological vectors of akabane virus. Vet. Microbiol. 21, 125-131.

Jun Q., Qingling M., Zaichao Z., Kuojun C., Jingsheng Z., Minxing M. and Chuangfu C. (2012). A serological survey of akabane virus infection in cattle and sheep in northwest China. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 44, 1817-1820.

Lee J.K., Park J.S., Choi J.H., Paik B.K., Lee B.C., Hwang W.S., Kim J.H., Jean Y.H., Haritani M., Yoo H.S. and Kim D.Y. (2002). Encephalomyelitis associated with akabane virus infection in adult cows. Vet. Pathol. 39, 269-273.

Liao Y.K., Lu Y.S., Goto Y. and Inaba Y. (1996). The isolation of akabane virus (Iriki strain) from calves in Taiwan. J. Basic Microbiol. 36, 33-39.

Pugh D.G. and Baird A.N. (2012). Sheep and Goat Medicine. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Radostits O.M., Gay C.C., Hinchcliff K.W. and Constable P.D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine. A Text Book of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Goat and Horse. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Tarlinton R., Daly J., Dunham S. and Kydd J. (2012). The challenge of schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Vet. J. 194, 10-18.

Taylor W.P. and Mellor P.S. (1994). The distribution of akabane virus in the Middle East. Epidemiol. Infect. 113, 175-185.

Tsuda T., Yoshida K., Yanase T., Ohashi S. and Yamakawa M.

     (2004). Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of the antibodies specific to akabane virus. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 16, 571-576.

Yoshida K. and Tsuda T. (1998). Rapid detection of antigenic diversity of akabane virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Clin. Vacc. Immunol. 5, 192-198.