Immunity Against Avian Influenza Viruspanax Ginseng Polysaccharide (GPS) Can Improve Immunity Against H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China

2 Department of Animal Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano, Nigeria

Abstract

The humoral immunization potential of panax ginseng polysaccharide (GPS) against H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) in chickens was investigated. The effects of GPS treatment before and during H9N2 AIV infection were determined in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) by MTT (3(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of MHC and cytokine expression. The percentages of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum antibody titers were examined in vivo. High expressions of MHCII and the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 were observed in CEF treated with GPS before and during H9N2 infection. These results indicated that the antiviral activity of GPS was enhanced by pretreatment of CEF and that GPS promotes early humoral immune responses in young chickens

Keywords


Ahn J.Y., Choi I.S.,  Shim J.Y., Yun E.K., Yun Y.S., Jeong G. and Song J.Y. (2006a). The immunomodulator ginsan induces resistance to experimental sepsis by inhibiting Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory signals. Eur. J. Immunol. 36, 37-45.

Ahn J.Y., Song J.Y., Yun Y.S., Jeong G. and Choi I.S. (2006b). Protection of Staphylococcus aureus infected septic mice by suppression of early acute inflammation and enhanced antimicrobial activity by ginsan. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 46, 187-197.

Delves P.J. and Roitt I.M. (2000). Advances in immunology: The immune system: Second of two parts. New Engl. J. Med. 343, 108-111.

Dou D.Q., Zhang Y.W., Zhang L., Chen Y.J. and Yao X.S. (2001). The inhibitory effects of ginsenosides on protein tyrosine kinase activated by hypoxia / reoxygenation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Planta. Med. 67(1), 19-23.

Dubois M., Gilles K., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A. and Smith F.A. (1951). Colorimetric method for the determination of sugars. Nature. 168(4265), 167-169.

Fair J.M., Taylor-McCobe K.J., Shou Y. and Marrone B.L. (2008). Immunophenotyping of chickens peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations: individual variability and repeatability. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 125, 268-273.

Guleria I., Mukherjee R. and S.H. Kaufmann (1993). In vivo depletion of CD4+ and CD8 T lymphocytes impairs mycobacterium W vaccine- induce protection against M. tuberculosis in mice. Med. Microbial. Immunol (Berl). 182, 129-135.

Han Y., Son S.J., Akhalaia M., Platonov A., Son H.J., Lee K.H., Yun Y.S. and Song J.Y. (2005). Modulation of radiation-induced disturbances of antioxidant defense systems by ginsan. Evid. Based Comp. Alt. Med. 2(4), 529-536.

Hilton L.S., Bean A.G.D. and Lowenthal J.W (2002). The emerging role of avian cytokines as immunotherapeutics and vaccine adjuvants. Vet. Immunol. Immunopatholo. 85, 119-128.

Hsieh C.S., Macatonia S.E., Tripp C.S., Wolf S.F.O. Garra A. Murphy K.M. (1993). Development of TH1 CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages. S cience. 260, 547-549.

Hwang I., Ahn G., Park E., Ha d., Song J.Y. and Jee Y. (2011). An acidic polysaccharide of panax ginseng ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and induces regulatory T cells. Immunol. Lett. 138, 169-178.

Kallon S., Li X., Ji J., Chen C., Xi Q., Chang S., Xue C., Ma J., Xie Q. and Zhang Y. (2013). Astragaluspolysaccharide enhances immunity and inhibits H9N2 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. J. Anim. Sci. Biotech. 4, 22-25.

Kim K.H., Lee Y.S., Jung I.S., Park S.Y., Chung H.Y., Lee I.R. and Yun Y.S. (1998). Acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng, ginsan, induces Th1 cell and macrophage cytokines and generates LAK cells in synergy with rIL-2. Planta. Med. 64, 110-115.

Kong X.F., Hu Y.L., Yin Y.L., Wu G.Y., Rui R., Wang D.Y. and Yang C.B. (2006). Ingredients are effective immune stimulators for chickens infected with the Newcastle disease virus. Poult. Sci. 85, 12-18.

Moscona A. (2005). Oseltamivir resistance–disabling our influenza defenses. New Engl. J. Med. 353, 2633-2636.

Obayelu A.E. (2007). Socio-economic analysis of the impacts of avian influenza epidemic on households’ poultry consumption and poultry industry in Nigeria: empirical investigation of Kwara State. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Rivera E., Daggfeldt A. and Hu S. (2003). Ginseng extract in aluminium adjuvanted vaccines improves the antibody response of pigs to porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Vet. Immunol. Immunopatholo. 91, 19-27.

Scaglion F., Cattane G., Alessandria M. and Cogo R. (1996). The Handbook of Clinically Tested Herbal Remedies. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research.

Sun Q., Cai X. and Tong G. (2002). The function of CD4+/CD8+ in cellular immunization and its relationship with PRRS. Chin. J. Prev. Vet. Med. 22, 151-152.

Suomalainen M., Liljestrom P. and Garoff H. (2011). Effect of Pine seed shell extract on microbial and viral infection. J. virol. 66, 4737-4747.

Wang R., (2001). The role of MHC class 11-restricted tumor antigens and CD4+ T cells in anti-tumor immunity. Trends Immunol. 22, 269-276.

Xiaoyan H., Wang D., Hu Y., Lu Y., Guo Z., Kong X. and Sun J. (2008). Effect of sulfated astragalus polysaccharide on cellular infectivity of infectious bursal disease virus. Int. J. Biolog. Macromol. 42, 166-171.

Yang M., Qian X., Zhao D. and Fu S. (2010). Effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on the erythroid lineage and microarray analysis in K562 cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2(1), 15-27.

Yoo D.G., Kim M.C., Park M.K., Park K.M., Quan F.S., Song J.M., Wee J.J., Wang B.Z., Cho Y.K., Compans R.W., Kang S.M., (2012). Protective effect of Ginseng polysaccharides on influenza viral infection. PloS One. 7(3), e33678.

Yuan C.S., Wang C.Z., Wicks S.M., Qi L.W. (2010). Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng. J. Ginseng Res. 34, 160-167.

Zhang W.J. (1999). Biochemistry Technology of Polysaccharide Compound. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University Press.

Zhang N.W., Li J. F., Hu Y.X., Cheng G. L., Zhu X.Y., Liu F.Q. (2010). Effects of astragalus polysaccharide on the immune response to foot- and mouth disease vaccine in mice. Carbohydrate Polymers. 82, 680-686.

Zhang Y.W., Dou D.Q., Zhang L., Chen Y.J. and Yao X.S. (2001). Effects of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on cell-to-cell communication function mediated by gap junctions. Planta. Med. 67(5), 417-421.