Interactive Influence of Formycine® Gold and Pigment on Egg Quality and Performance of Laying Hens

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Sodium bentonite can bind to dietary pigment and decreases yolk color scale. Sodium bentonite is one of the main parts of Formycine® Gold, the effect of different levels of Formycine® Gold and dietary pigment on egg quality, egg yolk color and performance criteria of laying hens from 26 to 34 week of age were studied. One hundred ninety two Hy-Line hens were divided into 24 groups of 8 birds each and randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments of 4 replicates each. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments based on 2 levels of pigment (0 and 0.4 g/kg) and 3 levels of Formycine® Gold (0, 1 and 2 g/kg). Feed intake, body weight, feed to egg ratio and egg productions were recorded at the end of the weeks 28, 30, 32 and 34. Egg quality characteristics including egg weight, specific gravity, yolk color scale, egg shell percentage and thickness were evaluated every other week. Formycine® Gold and dietary pigment had no effect on performance for entire of the experiment. Egg shell weight and thickness increased by 0.4 g/kg dietary pigment at 29-30 weeks of age. Hen-day egg production was not influenced by dietary treatments. Egg specific gravity was similar in hens fed different levels of Formycine® Gold and pigment, except for 29-30 weeks of age. Regardless of Formycine® Gold levels, diet supplemented with pigment considerably increased yolk color scale. It seems that, by decreasing the amount of sodium bentonite in Formycine® Gold, it can be used without any adverse effect on egg quality, egg pigmentation and performance of laying hens.


Arab-Abousadi M., Rowghani E. and Ebrahimi-Honarmand M. (2007). The efficacy of various additives to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Iranian J. Vet. Res. 8, 144-150.
Bendich A. (1989). Symposium conclusions: biological action of carotenoids. J. Nutr. 119, 135-136.
Briggs G.M. and Spivey M.R. (1954). Vitamin A deficiency in chicks produced by feeding bentonite in synthetic diets. Poult. Sci. 33, 1044-1051.
Chung T.K., Erddman J.W. and Baker D.H. (1990). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate: effects on zinc, manganese, vitamin A and riboflavin utilization. Poult. Sci. 69, 1364-1370.
Desheng Q., Fan L., Yanhu Y. and Niya Z. (2005). Adsorption of aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite. Poult. Sci. 84, 959-961.
Devegowda G. and Murthy T.N.K. (2005). Mycotoxins: their effects in poultry and some practical solutions. Pp. 25-56 in Mycotoxin Blue Book. D. Diaz, Ed. Nottingham University Press, Bath, UK.
Edds G.T. and Bortell R.R. (1983). Biological effects of aflatoxin in poultry. Pp.55-61 in Aflatoxin and aspergillus flavus in corn. U.L. Diener, R.L. Asqulth and J.W. Dickens, Eds. Souther Cooperative Services Bulletin. 279. Alabama Agricultural Experimental Station, Auburn University.
Erwin E.S., Elam C.J. and Dyer I.A. (1957). The influence of sodium bentonite in vitro and in the ration of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 16, 858-862.
Glahn R.P., Beers K.W., Bottje W.G., Wideman R.F., Huff W.E. and Thomas W. (1991). Aflatoxicosis alters avian renal function, calcium and vitamin D metabolism. J. Toxic. Environ. Health. 34, 309-321.
Gray S.J., Ward T.L., Southern L.L. and Ingram D.R. (1998). Interactive effects of sodium bentonite and coccidiosis with monensin or salinomycin in chicks. Poult. Sci. 77, 600-604.
Hashemipour H., Kermanshahi H. and Pilevar M. (2010). Interactive effect of sodium bentonite with pigments on performance and egg quality of laying hens. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9, 2179-2184.
Holder D.P. and Bradford M.V. (1979). Relationship of specific gravity of chicken eggs to number of cracked eggs and percent shell. Poult. Sci. 58, 250-251.
HY-Line International. (2007). Hy-Line W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Hy-Line International West Des Moines, Iowa.
Ibrahim I.K., Shareef A.M. and Al-Joubory K.M.T. (2000). Ameliorative effects of sodium bentonite on phagocytosis and Newcastle disease antibody formation in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 69, 112-119.
Kermanshahi H., HajiaghaJani E., Hashemipour H. and Pilevar M. (2011). Efficacy of natural zeolite and pigments on yolk colour and performance of laying hens. African J. Biotechnol. 10, 3237-3242.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Huff W.E., Corrier D.E., Phillips T.D. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1990). Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin. Poult. Sci. 69, 1078-1086.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Huff W.E., Elissalde M.H., Yersin A.G., Phillips T.D. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1993). Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium alumino-silicate to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and diacetoxyscripenol. Poult. Sci.72, 51-59.
Leeson S., Diaz G. and Summers J.D. (1995). Aflatoxins. Pp. 248-279 in Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins., University Books, Ontario, Canada.
Lu J., Sanchez S., Hofacre C., Maurer J.J., Harmon B.G. and Lee M.D. (2003). Evaluation of broiler litter with reference to the microbial composition as assessed by using 16S rRNA and functional gene markers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 901-908.
Miazzo R., Rosa C.A.R., De Queiroz Carvalho E.C., Magnoli C., Chiacchiera S.M., Palacio G., Saenz M., Kikot A., Basaldella E. and Dalcero A. (2000). Efficacy of synthetic zeolite to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 79, 1-6.
Miles R.D., Laurent S.M. and Harms R.H. (1986). Influence of sodium zeolite A on laying hen performance. Poult. Sci. 65, 182.
Oguz H., Hadimili H.H., Kurtoglu V. and Evganis O. (2003). Evaluation of humeral immunity of broilers during chronic aflatoxin (50 and 100 ppb) and clinoptilolite exposure. Rev.
       Med. Vet. 38, 483-486.
Ortatatli M. and Oguz H. (2001). Ameliorative effects of dietary clinoptilolite on pathological changes in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 71, 59-66.
Perez-Vendrell A.M., Hernandez J.M., Llaurado L. and Brufau J. (2001). Influence of source and ratio of xanthophylls pigments on broiler chicken pigmentation and performance. Poult. Sci. 80, 320-326.
Phillips T.D. (1999). Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxic. Sci. 52, 118-126.
Ramos A.J., Fink-Gremmels J. and Hernandez E. (1996). Prevention of toxic effects of mycotoxins by means of nonnutritive adsorbent compounds. J. Food Prot. 59, 631-641.
Rizzi L., Simioli M., Roncada P. and Zaghini A. (2003). Aflatoxin B1 and clinoptilolite in feed for laying hens: effects on egg quality, mycotoxin residues in livers, and hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activities. J. Food Prot. 66, 860-865.
Roland D.A. (1990). Further studies of effects of phosphorus and aluminosilicates on egg shell quality. Poult. Sci. 67, 577-584.
Santin E. (2000). Mycotoxicosis. Pp. 379-388 in Doencus das A Campinas. Jr.A. Berchieri and Macari M. Eds. Campinas: Facta.
SAS Institute. (1995). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6 SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
Smith J.W. and Hamilton P.B. (1970). Aflatoxicosis in the broiler chicken. Poult. Sci. 49, 207-215.
Vuilleumier J.P. (1969). The Roche yolk colour-fan: an instrument for measuring yolk colour. Poult. Sci. 48, 767-779.
Wilson D.M. and Payne G.A. (1994). Factors Affecting Aspergillus flavus Group Infection and Aflatoxin Contamination of Crops. Academic Press, San Diego.
Yu J., Chang P.K., Ehrlich K.C., Cary J.W., Bhatnagar D., Cleveland T.E., Payne G.A., Linz J.E., Woloshuk C.P. and Bennett J.W. (2004). Clustered pathway genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 1253-1262.