1Department of Animal Production and Technology, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia
2School of Animal and Range Science, Collage of Agriculture, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia
3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Receive Date: 11 August 2014,
Revise Date: 15 December 2014,
Accept Date: 15 January 2015
The study was conducted at Haramaya university poultry farm to evaluate the effects of locally processed fish waste meal (FWM) in the diet of white leghorn layers on the performance and hatchability, egg quality, sensory flavor and profitability of the rations. One hundred eighty chickens at five months of age were randomly distributed (15 layers per each 12 pens). The pens were randomly assigned with three replications for each of four experimental rations. Ninety day age dry matter intake (DMI), laying performance, egg quality of T1 (conventional layers ration with no FWM), T2 5% FWM + 10% soybean meal (SBM) + 16% wheat short (WS) + 17% noug seed cake (NSC), T3 10% FWM + 5% SBM + 8% (WS) + 16.8% (NSC), T4 15% FWM + 0% SBM + 6% wheat high (WH) + 16.7% (NSC) were considered. The chemical analysis showed that FWM contained 41.2% crude protein (CP) and 2982.04 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg DM. DMI (88.6, 90.1, 89.1 and 89.2 (SEM=2.81, for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively) was not statistically different between the treatments. Average daily body weight (BW) gain, (SEM=0.027 g), for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively) was significantly lower in T2 and T4 as compared to T3. Hen-day egg production (47.8%, 54.9, 58.1 and 53.8 (SEM=1.32), egg mass (23.0 g, 28.8, 27.1 and 26.8 (SEM=0.73), for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively) were significantly higher in diets fed with rations containing FWM as compared to the control group. Feed efficiency ratio (0.26, 0.30, 0.30 and 0.30 (SEM=0.007), for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively was significantly higher for groups consumed FWM diet than the control. Eggs from hens fed with rations containing 10 and 15% FWM had moderate fishy flavor (P<0.05) as compared to those consuming the control and T2 diets. The results obtained from partial budget analysis indicated that inclusion of FWM improved the economics of egg production which is attributed to the high cost of soybean meal as compared to FWM and the better efficiency of feed utilization by FWM groups. Thus, FWM inclusion improved egg laying performance and profitability, but imparted moderate fishy flavor beyond 5% inclusion. However, when considering egg production, feed efficiency ratio, net return and egg sale to feed cost ratio, inclusion of FWM in White Leghorn diets at up to 10% is recommended.
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