In vitro Evaluation of Different Substitution Levels of Soybean Meal by Guar Meal in a Fattening Diet for Lambs

Document Type : Research/Original Article


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


The aim of the current study was to evaluate the replacement effect of soybean meal (SBM) at different levels (0 as D1, 33 as D2, 67 as D3 and 100% as D4 based on crude protein (CP) content) by guar meal (GM) on ruminal gas production kinetics, ruminal digestibility and fermentation characteristics of a fattening diet for lambs. Three experiments were conducted. The first experiment of 144-h incubations was aimed to determine comparatively the gas production kinetics of SBM and GM. The gas production kinetics and the ruminal digestibility and fermentation of the fattening diet, containing different proportions of SBM and GM, were also studied by the incubations of 144-h and 24-h in the second and last experiments, respectively. The results of the first kinetic experiment indicated a higher asymptote of gas production (a), half time to asymptote of gas production (T1/2) and metabolizable energy (ME) and a lower fractional rate of gas production (µ) for SBM than GM (P <0.001). Replacing SBM with GM had no effect on gas production kinetics of the fattening diet at any substitution levels in the second kinetic experiment (P>0.05). However, the gas produced after 24-h of incubation (GP24), in vitro true dry mater degradability (IVTDMD), in vitro true organic matter degradability (IVTOMD), partitioning factor (PF), microbial biomass production (MBP) and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentration increased with D2 compared to D1 and D3 in the last experiment. The ammonia concentration decreased with D2 and D3 compared to D4 (P<0.05), nevertheless, the ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) pattern was not affected by the treatments (P>0.05). These results demonstrated that the protein from SBM might been replaced by that from GM in fattening diets for lambs at the levels up to 67%, but the 33% substitution is recommended because of its beneficial effects on ruminal digestibility and fermentation.


Ahmed M.M.M., El-Hag F.M. and Awouda M.M. (2000). The use of guar meal in the diet of sheep. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 9, 91-98.
AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis‎. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Blummel M. (2000). Predicting the partitioning of fermentation products by combined in vitro gas volume-substrate degradability measurements: opportunities and limitations. Pp. 48-58 in Gas Production: Fermentation Kinetics for Feed Evaluation and to Assess Microbial activity. British Society of Animal Science. Penicuik, Midlothian, UK.
Blummel M., Makkar H.P.S. and Becker K. (1997). In vitro gas production: a technique revisited. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 77, 24-34.
Broderick G.A. and Kang J.H. (1980). Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media. J. Dairy Sci. 63, 64-75.
Conner S. (2002). Characterization of guar meal for use in poultry ration. PhD Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Texas.
Danesh Mesgaran M., Jahani-Azizabadi H. and Vakili A. (2010). The effect of heat or heat-xylose processing on chemical composition and in vitro first order dry matter and crude protein disappearance kinetics of guar meal. World Aca. Sci. Eng. Tech.68, 2179-2180.
France J., Dhanoa M.S., Theodorou M.K., Lister S.J., Davies D.R. and Isac D. (1993). A ‎model to interpret gas accumulation profiles associated with in vitro degradation of ‎ruminant feeds. J. Theor. Biol. 163, 99-111.
Habib G., Ali M., Bezabih M. and Khan N.A. (2013a). In situ assessment of ruminal dry matter degradation kinetics and effective rumen degradability of feedstuffs originated from agro-industrial by-products. Pakistanian Vet. J. 33, 466-470.
Habib G., Khan N.A., Ali M. and Bezabih M. (2013b). In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin. Livest. Sci. 153, 81-87.
Jahani-Azizabadi H., Danesh Mesgaran M., Vakili A.R., Vatandoost M., Abdi Ghezeljeh E. and Mojtahedi M. (2010). The effect of heat or heat-xylose processing on nitrogen fractions and in situ/in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal protein. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 5, 266-273.
Lee J.T., Bailey C.A. and Cartwrightl A.L. (2003). Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens. J. Poultry Sci. 82, 1589-1595.
Mahdavi M., Torbatinejad N.M., Moslemipur F. and Samiei R. (2010). Evaluation of guar meal replacement potential instead of some conventional meals for feedlot lambs. Pp. 11-15 in Proc. 28nd ASAP Biennial Conf., Armidale, Australia.
Makkar H.P.S., Blümmel M. and Becker K. (1995). Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production ‎and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nutr. 73, 897-913.
Mandal A., Aggarwal S., Khirwar S. and Sagar V. (1999). Utilization of clusterbean-meal in rations of growing buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 59, 851-859.
Marghazani B., Jabbar M.A., Pasha T.N. and Abdullah M. (2013). Ruminal degradability characteristics in vegetable protein sources of Pakistan. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 23, 1578-1582.
Menke K.H. and Steingass H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from ‎chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28, 7-55.
Mondal G., Walli T.K., Patra A.K. (2008). In vitro and in sacco ruminal protein degradability of common Indian feed ingredients. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 20(4), 63.
Nagpal M.L., Agrawal O.P. and Bhatia I.S. (1971). Chemical and biological examination of guar meal (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). Indian J. Anim. Sci. 41, 283-293.
Nolan J.V. and Dobos R.C. (2005). Nitrogen transactions in ruminants. Pp. 177-206 in Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism. J. Dijkstra, J.M. Forbes and J. France, Eds. CABI Publishing, Walingford, UK.
NRC. (1985). Nutrient requirements of sheep. 6th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Olaisen V., Mejdell T., Volden H. and Nesse N. (2003). Simplified in situ method for estimating ruminal dry matter and protein degradability of concentrates. J. Anim. Sci. 81, 520-528.
Ottenstein D.M. and Bartley D.A. (1971). Separation of free acids C2-C5 in diluted aqueous ‎solution column technology. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 9, 673-681.
Salehpour M. and Qazvinian K. (2011). Effects of feeding different levels of Guar meal on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein lactating cows. Lucrări Ştiinţifice. 55, 196-200.
SAS. (2002). Statistical Analytical System Users Guide. Release  9.  SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Sharma P. and Gummagolmath K.C. (2012). Reforming Guar industry in India: issues and strategies. Agr. Econ. Res. Rev. 25, 37-48.
Shingfield K.J., Vanhatalo A. and Huhtanen P. (2003). Comparison of heat-treated rapeseed expeller and solvent-extracted soybean meal protein supplements for dairy cows given grass silage-based diets. Anim. Sci. 77, 305-317.
Turki I.Y., Elkadier O.A., El-Amin M., El. Zuber D. and Hassabo A.A. (2011). Effect of Guar meals and oilseed cakes on carcass characteristics and meat quality attributes of beef cattle. Bio. Res. Commun. 1, 66-75.
Van Nevel C.J., Decuypere J.A., Dierick N.A. and Molly K. (2005). Incorporation of galactomannans in the diet of newly weaned piglets: effect on bacteriological and some morphological characteristics of the small intestine. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 59, 123-138.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral ‎detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Vatandoust A., Naserian A.A., Boldaje F. and Zerhdaran S. (2010). Effects of feeding different levels of guar meal on performance of Holstein dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 716.
Verma S.V.S. and McNab J.M. (1982). Guar meal in diets for broiler chicks. Br. Poult. Sci. 23, 95-105.
Verma S.V.S. and McNab J.M. (1984). Chemical, biochemical and microbiological examination of guar meal. Indian J. Poult. Sci. 19, 165-170.
Wolin M.J. (1960). A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. J. Dairy Sci. 43, 1452-1458.
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2015
Pages 615-621
  • Receive Date: 07 July 2014
  • Revise Date: 17 September 2014
  • Accept Date: 15 October 2014
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2015