Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
Receive Date: 01 November 2014,
Revise Date: 16 January 2015,
Accept Date: 31 January 2015
The present study aimed to estimate the effects of parity, calving season and year of calving on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows. A total of 2682 records from 869 Holstein cows in a large dairy farm (Azarbaijan province, Iran), respecting the period from 2006 to 2009, were collected. Data was analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS software by MIVQUE method. Subclinical mastitis was also studied based on three differentmodels including: 1) considering each udder quarter as a separate unit (Udder quarter model), 2) considering all the four udder quarters of a cow as one overall unit (Subclinm model) and 3) considering the sum of positive subclinical mastitis scores in all udder quarters of an animal (Episode model). Diagnosis of subclinical mastitis was based on California Mastitis Test. Results showed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis was20.83%. The prevalence of cows with only one udder quarter affected by subclinical mastitis was 23.71%. Parity and year of calving significantly affected the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (P>0.001). Older cows with higher parity number had increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Therefore, the highest prevalence of subclinical mastitis was observed in cows having number of parities between 5and 11. The lowest subclinical mastitis prevalence (using three mastitis models) was recorded in 2010, whilst its highest prevalence was observed in 2008. Season of calving also significantly influenced subclinical mastitis prevalence (P<0.05): cows calving in autumn had higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than those calving in the other seasons. Concluding, data from the present study demonstrated thatparity, calving season and year of calving influenced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis on the three mentioned models.
Abaineh D. (1997). Treatment trials of sub-clinical mastitis with a polygonaceae herb. Pp. 67-75 in Proc. 11th Conf. Ethiopian Vet. Assoc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Abaineh D., Yirgalem G. and Sintayehu A. (2002). Treatment dose estimation trial of Persicaria senegalense herb against sub-clinical mastitis. J. Ethiopian Vet. Assoc.4, 13-22.
Alrawi A.A., Pollak E.J. and Laben R.C. (1979). Genetic analysis of California mastitis test records. I. Coded tests. J. Dairy Sci.62, 1115-1124.
Banos G. and Shook G.E. (1990). Genotype by environment interaction and genetic correlations among parities for somatic cell count and milk yield. J. Dairy Sci.73, 2563-2573.
Barkema H.W., Schukken Y.H., Lam T., Galligan D.T., Beiboer M.L. and Brand A. (1997). Estimation of interdependence among quarters of the bovine udder with subclinical mastitis and implications for analysis. J. Dairy Sci.80, 1592-1599.
Batra T.R. (1980). The incidence of subclinical mastitis and related pathogens in two lines of dairy cattle. Canadian J. Anim. Sci.60, 743-748.
Berglund I., Pettersson G., Svennersten-Sjaunja K. and Östensson K. (2004). Frequency of individual udder quarters with elevated CMT scores in cows' milk samples with low somatic cell counts. Vet. Rec.155, 213.
Biffa D., Debela E. and Beyene F. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in lactating dairy cows in southern Ethiopia. J. Appl. Res .Vet. Med.3, 189-198.
Braund D.G. and Schultz L.H. (1963). Physiological and environmental factors affecting the California Mastitis Test under field conditions.J. Dairy Sci. 46, 197-203.
Busato A., Trachsel P., Schällibaum M. and Blum J.W. (2000). Udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in Switzerland. Prev. Vet. Med. 44(3), 205-220.
Detilleux J., Theron L., Beduin J.M. and Hanzen C. (2012). A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds. Prev. Vet. Med. 107(3), 170-179.
Dulin A.M., Paape M.J. and Nickerson S.C. (1988). Comparison of phagocytosis and chemiluminescence by blood and mammary gland neutrophils from multiparous and nulliparous cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49, 172-177.
Emanuelson U., Danell B. and Philipsson J. (1988). Genetic parameters for clinical mastitis, somatic cell counts, and milk production estimated by multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood. J. Dairy Sci. 71, 467-476.
Fisher G. (1979). The cost of mastitis. Ontario Milk. Produc.55, 18-21.
Forsbäck L., Lindmark-Mansson H., Andrén A. and Svennersten-Sjaunja K. (2009). Evaluation of quality changes in udder quarter milk from cows with low-to-moderate somatic cell counts.Animal.4, 617-626.
Hansen L.B. (1992). What will genetic evaluation for SCC look like? Pp. 114 in Proc. 31st Ann. Mtg. Natl. Mastitis Counc., Arlington, VA.
Harmon R.J. (1994). Symposium: mastitis and genetic evaluation for somatic cell count. J. Dairy Sci.77, 2103-2112.
Lindström U.B. and Syväjärvi J. (1978). Use of field records in breeding for mastitis resistance in dairy cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci.5, 29-44.
Meiri-Bendek I., Lipkin E., Friedmann A., Leitner G., Saran A., Friedman S. and Kashi Y. (2002). A PCR-based method for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in milk. J. Dairy Sci.85, 1717-1723.
Miller R.H., Owen J.R. and Moore E.D. (1976). Incidence of clinical mastitis in a herd of Jersey cattle.J. Dairy Sci. 59, 113-119.
Monardes H.G. and Hayes J.F. (1984). Genetic and phenotypic statistics of lactation cell counts in different lactations of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci.68, 1449-1455.
Noshahr Ala F. and Shadparvar A.A. (2011). Study of effect of milk yield and environmental traits in mastitis incidence in Iranian Holstein cows. MS Thesis. Sari Univ., Sari, Iran.
Oltenacu P.A. and Broom D.M. (2010). The impact of genetic selection for increased milk yield on the welfare of dairy cows. Anim. Welfare. 19(1), 39-49.
Phuektes P., Mansell P.D. and Browning G.F. (2001). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneousdetection of Staphylococcus aureus and streptococcal causes of bovine mastitis. J. Dairy Sci.84, 1140-1148.
Quaderi M.A. (2005). Prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in dairy farms. MS Thesis. Bangladesh Agricultural Univ., Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Rafye-Barzoki M. (1998). Study of the prevalence of bacterial mastitis and the economic loss due to it in dairy farms in Semnan province.Pp.12-18 in final report of project, Ser. No. GN/60, Ministery of Jahad-e-Sazandegi.
Rahman M.A., Bhuiyan M.M.U., Kamal M.M. and Shamsuddin M. (2009). Prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in dairy cows. Bangladesh Vet. 26, 54-60.
Salsberg E., Meek A.H. and Martin S.W. (1984). Somatic cell counts: Associated factors and relationship to production. Canadian J. Comp. Med.48, 251-257.
SAS Institute. (2004). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
Schultz M.M., Hansen L.B., Steuernagel G.R., Reneau J.K. and Kuck A.L. (1990). Genetic parameters for somatic cells, protein, and fat in milk of Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 7, 494-502.
Slettbakk T., Jorstad A., Farver T.B. and Holmes J.C. (1995). Impact of milking characteristics and morphology of udder and teats on clinical mastitis in first-and second-lactation Norwegian cattle. Prev. Vet. Med. 24, 235-244.
Sutra L. and Poutrel B. (1990). Detection of capsular polysaccharide in milk of cows with natural intramammary infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Am. J. Vet. Res.51, 1857-1859.
Van Dorp T.E., Dekkers J.C.M., Martin S.W. and Noordhuizen J. (1998). Genetic parameters of health disorders, and relationships with 305-day milk yield and conformation traits of registered Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 8, 2264-2270.
Wilton J.W., Van Vleck L.D., Everett R.W., Guthrie R.S. and Roberts S.J. (1972). Genetic and environmental aspects of udder infections.J. Dairy Sci. 55, 183-193.