Utilization of Urea and Urease Treated Rice Straw by Indigenous Growing Cattle

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Animal Nutrition, Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2 Department of Dairy Science,Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Sher-e-BanglaAgricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh


The experiment was conducted to study the effect of treatment of rice straw with urea and a urease containing midden soil on the chemical composition of treated rice straw, feed intake of the animals, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and overall economy of feeding for a period of 105 days. Twelve indigenous growing cattle (live weight 130.00±1.67 kg) were selected and divided into four groups having three animals in each group. The animals received 3.0% urea + 2.0% midden soil treated rice straw (group A), 3.0% urea + 3.0% midden soil treated rice straw (group B), 3.0% urea + 4.0% midden soil treated rice straw (group C) and 3.0% urea + 5.0% midden soil treated rice straw (group D). In addition, all the animals were supplied with 2 kg green grass, 450 g concentrate mixture and 40 g salt per 100 kg body weight. Treatment of rice straw with 3.0% urea+ 2.0% midden soil lead to an increase in crude protein content from 3.30 to 7.08%, which was further increased by 7.40, 7.90 and 8.14% if treated with 3.0% urea + 3.0% midden soil, 3.0% urea + 4.0% midden soil and 3.0% urea + 5.0% midden soil, respectively. The total live weight gain by the end of the experimental period (105 days) was 39.00, 42.50, 46.50 and 49.00 kg for groups A, B, C and D respectively. The addition of 5.0% midden soil as a urease source with 3.0% urea (D) treated rice straw not only significantly (P<0.01) increased the coefficient of digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extracts (EE) and nitrogen free extract (NFE), but also significantly (P<0.05) increased the coefficient of digestibility of (OM) compared to treatment of rice straw with 3.0% urea + 4.0% midden soil (C), 3.0% urea + 3.0% midden soil (B) or 3.0% urea + 2.0% midden soil (A). Digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible crude fibre (DCF), digestible nitrogen free extract (DNFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents were significantly (P<0.01) higher in diet D, compared to diets A, B and C. Total profit of meat production in group D was significantly higher (P<0.01) than in groups A, B and C.


AOAC. (2004). Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Bae D.H., Jung K.K. and Choi C.B. (1988). Studies on urea utilization as a source of ammonia for the rice straw treatment. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 30(1), 282-283.
Chenost M. and Kayouli C. (1997).Roughage Utilization in Warm Climates. FAO Animal and Health, Rome.
Dolberg F., Sadullah M., Haque M. and Ahmed R. (1981). Storage of urea treated straw using indigenous material. World Anim. Rev. 38, 37-41.
Doyle P.T., Devendra C. and Pearce G.R. (1986). Rice Straw as a Feed for Ruminants. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges Limited (IDP), Canberra, Australia.
FAO. (2009). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations the State of Food Insecurity in the World.
Goto M. (1995). Ammoniation of barely straw effect on anatomical and physiochemical characteristics of the cell walls. Ann. Zootech. 44(1), 70.
Jayasuriya M.C.N. and Pearce G.R. (1983). The effect of urease enzyme on treatment time and the nutritive value of straw treated with ammonia as urea. Anim. Feed Sci. 6, 123-131.
Khan M.J., Scaife J.R. and Hovell F.D. (1999). The effect of different sources of urease enzyme on the nutritive value of wheat straw treated with urea as a source of ammonia. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 12(7), 1063-1069.
Mahr-ur-Nisa M., Sarwar M. and Khan M.A. (2004). Influnce of adlibitum feeding of urea treated wheat straw with or without corn steep liquor on intake, in situ digestion kinetics, nitrogen metabolism and nutrient digestion in Nili- Ravi buffalo bulls. Australian J. Argic. Res. 55(2), 229-236.
McDonald A.A., Edwards R.A., Greenhalgh J.F.D. and Morgan C.A. (2002). Animal Nutrition.Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.
Mithalal G. and Taparia A.L. (2007). Incorporation of water hyacinth silage in the ration of cross bred heifers. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 15(1), 64-66.
Munoze F., Joy F. and Alibes X. (1991). Treatment of leguminous residues with urea. Influence of dosage, moisture, temperature and addition of urease. Ann. Zootech. 40, 215-225.
Narayan D., Sharma K. and Naulia U. (2004). Nutrititional evaluation of lentil straw and urea treated wheat straw in goats and lactating buffaloes. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 17(11), 1529-1534.
Nguyen-Xuan T. (2004). An evaluation of adaptability of alkali treated of rice straw as feed for growing beef cattle under smallholders circumstances. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 16(7), 52-56.
Puri J.P. and Gupta B.N. (1994). Effect of feeding ammonia treated rice straw on growth and nutrient utilization in cross- bred calves. Indian J. Anim. Nutr. Anim. Sci. 7(3), 191-194.
Wanapat M., Sundstol F. and Garma T.H. (1984). A comparison of alkali treatment methods to improve the nutritive values of straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 12, 295-309.
Wanapat M., Polyorach S., Boonnop K., Mapato C. and Cherdthong A. (2009). Effects of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 125, 238-243.