Semen Characteristics and Oxidative/Antioxidati in Semen and Serum of Male Rabbits Supplemented with Antioxidants during Heat Stress

Document Type: Research Articles

Authors

1 Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract

Heat stress (HS) often blamed for suboptimal reproductive efficiency and is a worldwide problem, which inflicts heavy economic losses reflected in limiting the breeding season of rabbits to be normally from September to May in northern hemisphere and subtropical regions. The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of summer heat stress and the alleviating effect of some antioxidants on semen characteristics and the serum and seminal plasma oxidative/antioxidative status of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit bucks. Forty-eight fertile NZW white bucks were randomly divided into six equal groups (n=8),first two groups served as control (summer heat stressed and winter) groups, the others, orally administrated ascorbic acid 40 mg/kg bw/d, zinc methionine 10 mg/kg bw/d, coenzyme Q1010 mg/kg bw/d and L-carnitine 40 mg/kg bw/d. Blood and semen samples were collected once weekly among experimental period. Routine spermogram was performed. Lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity in both serum and seminal plasma were assayed. The climatic data were continuously recorded among the experimental period and the weekly average temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated. Summer HS adversely affected both qualitative and quantitative traits of spermogram but bucks remain within fertile limit. Thiobarbiric acid reactive substances (TBARS) showed a significant increase while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase showed significant decreases. Contrary to our expectation, selected antioxidants did not restore these parameters to their winter levels. It was concluded that zinc and L-carnitine were found to be the most beneficial antioxidants in the relief of spermogram of HS-induced effects. Serum and seminal plasma oxidative/antioxidant statuses followed an identical pattern in response to heat stress. Taking the current results into consideration, it can be stated that an adequate reproductive performance in NZW rabbit bucks can be achieved in summer and from the scientific point of view, it is not obligatory to stop breeding in summer months.

Keywords


Aebi H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 105, 121-126.
Aitken R.J. and Fisher H. (1994). Reactive oxygen species generation and human spermatozoa: the balance of benefit and risk. Bioassays. 16, 259-267.
Andrieu S. (2008). Is there a role for organic trace element supplements in transition cow health.Vet. J.176, 77-83.
Armitage P. (1971). Statistical Methods in Medical Research. 1st Ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Blom E. (1977). Sperm morphology with reference to bull infertility. Pp. 1-6 inProc. 1st All-India Symp. Anim. Reprod. Ludhiana, India.
Chen Z., Thomas T., Linda G., Nelta M., Isaac S. and Russ H. (2003). Seasonal variation and age-related changes in human semen parameters. J. Androl. 24(2), 226-231.
Correa J.R. and Zavos P.M. (1994). The hypoosmotic swelling test: its employ­ment as an assay to evaluate the functional integrity of the frozen-thawed bovine sperm membrane. Theriogenology. 42, 351-360.
DuarteT.L. and Lunec J. (2005). When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of vitamin C. Free Radic. Res. 39, 671-686.
DuncanD.B. (1955). Multiple ranges and multiple F-tests. Biometrics. 11, 1-41.
Foote R.H. and Hare E. (2000). High catalase content of rabbit semen appears to be inherited. J. Androl. 21, 664-668.
Gil-Guzman E., Ollero M., Lopez M.C., Sharma R.K., Alvarez J.G., Thomas A.J.J. and Agarwal A. (2001). Differential production of reactive oxygen species by subsets of human spermatozoa at different stages of maturation. Hum. Reprod. 16, 1922-1930.
Hussein A.S.M. (2007). Enhancing rabbit performance reared in newly reclaimed areas by allviating the environmental stress.Ph.D. Thesis. Fac.Agri.CairoUniversity.
Janett F., Thun R., Niederer K., Burger D. and Hassig M. (2003b). Seasonal changes in semen quality and freezability in the Warmblood stallion. Theriogenology. 60, 453-461
Jeulin C. and Lewin L.M. (1996). Role of free L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in postgonadal maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. Hum. Reprod. Update. 2, 87-102.
Joanna Rogalska J., Brzóska M.M., Roszczenko A. and Moniuszko-Jakoniuk J. (2009). Enhanced zinc consumption prevents cadmium-induced alterations in lipid metabolism in male rats. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 177, 142-152.
Kafi M., Safdarian M. and Hashemi M. (2004). Seasonal variation in semen characteristics, scrotal circumference and libido of Persian Karakul rams. Small Rumin. Res. 53, 133-139.
Kazemi H. and JohnsonD.C.(1986). Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid acid-base balance. Physiol. Rev. 66, 953-1024.
Koracevic D. (2001). Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J. Clin. Pathol. 54, 356-361.
Kozink D.M., Estienne M.J., Harper A.F. and Knight J.W. (2004). Effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on semen characteristics in boars. Theriogenology. 61, 1247-1258.
Lebas F., Coudert P., Rouvier R. and de Rochambeau H. (1986). The Rabbit. Husbandry, Health and Production. FAO, Animal Production and Health Series.
Lohrke B., Viergutz T., Kanitz W., Losand B., Weiss D.G. and Simko M. (2005). Hydroperoxides in circulating lipids from dairy cows, implications for bioactivity of endogenous-oxidized lipids. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 1708-1710.
Lord S. and Averill D.A. (2002). Heat shock inactivates cellular antioxidant defenses against hydrogen peroxide: Protection by glucose. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 32(8), 752-765.
Lphsi A. (1990). Livestock and Poultry Heat Stress Indices, Agriculture Engineering Technology Guide. ClemsonUniversity, Clemson, SC. USA.
Luck M.R., JeyaseelanI.and Scholes R.A. (1995). Ascorbic acid and fertility. Biol. Reprod. 52, 262-266.
Macirone C. and Walton A. (1983). Fecundity of male rabbits as determined by ‘Dummy mating’. J. Agric. Sci. 122-134.
Marai I.F.M., Abd El-Kariem M.A., Zeidan A.E.B. and Selem T.S.T. (1998). Reproductive performance of heat-stressed low fertile male rabbits as affected by types of gn-rh injection. Pp. 423-431 inProc. International Conference on Animal Production and Health in Semi-Arid Areas, El-Arish, North Sinai, Egypt.
Marai I.F.M. and Habeeb A.A. (1998). Adaptability of Bos taurous cattle under hot arid conditions. Annals of Arid Zone. 37(3), 253-281.
Marai I.F.M., Ayyat M.S. and Abd El-Monem U.M. (2001). Growth performance and reproductive traits at first parity of New Zealand White female rabbits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation, under Egyptian conditions. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 33, 1-12.
Marai I.F.M., Habeeb A.A.M. and Gad A.E. (2002). Rabbits’ productive, reproductive and physiological performance traits as affected by heat stress: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 78, 71-90.
Marai I.F.M., Habeeb A.A.M. and Gad A.E. (2005). Tolerance of imported rabbits grown as meat animals to hot climate and saline drinking water in the subtropical environment of Egypt. Anim. Sci. 81, 115-123.
Marder J., EylathU., Moskovitz E. and Snarir R. (1990). The effect of heat exposure on blood chemistry of the hyperthermic rabbit. Camp. Biochem. Physiol. 97A(2), 245-247.
Mishra M. and Acharya U.R. (2004). Protective action of vitamins on the spermatogenesis in lead-treated Swiss mice. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 18, 173-178.
Nagwa A.A., Azamel A.A., Barkawi A.H. and Morsy A.S. (2006). Thermo-respiratory response and hormonal profile of male rabbits injected with vitamin C under high and low ambient temperature in Egypt. Egyptian J. Rabbit. Sci. 16(1), 61-75.
Nichi M., Bols P.E.J., Zu¨ge R.M., Barnabe V.H., Goovaerts I.G.F., Barnabe R.C. and Cortada C.N.M. (2006). Seasonal variation in semen quality in Bos indicus and Bos taurus bulls raised under tropical conditions. Theriogenology. 66, 822-828.
Nizza A., Di Meo C. and TarantoS. (2003). Effect of collection rhythms and season on rabbit semen production. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 38, 436-439.
Ohkawa H., Ohishi N. and Yagi K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351-358.
Prasad A.S., Bao B., Beck J.R., Kucuk O. and Sakar F.H. (2004). Antioxidant effect of zinc in humans. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 37, 1182-1190.
Rastimeshin S.P. (1979). Reproductive performance of male rabbits. Krolikovodstvoi Zuerovodstvo. 4, 30-31.
Sobenin I.A., Tertov V.V. and Orekhov N. (1998). Optimization of the assay for sialic acid determination in low density protein. J. Lipid Res. 39, 2293-2299.
StephensonJ.L. and Brackett B.G. (1999). Influences of zinc on fertilization and development of bovine oocytes in vitro. Zygote. 7, 195-201.
Surai P.F., Blesbois E., Grasseau I., Chalah T., Brillard J.P. and Wishart G.J. (1998). Fatty acid composition, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxida-nt activity of avian semen. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 120, 527-33.
Valko M., Morris H. and Cronin M.T. (2005). Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr. Med. Chem. 12, 1161-208.
White I.G. (1976). Reproduction in the male. In Veterinary Physiology. J.G. Phillis Bristol: Wright-Scientechnica.
Zeidan A.E.B. (1989). Physiological studies on Friesian cattle. M.S. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, ZagazigUniversity, Zagazig, Egypt.
Zeidan A.E.B., Marai I.F.M. and Abd El-Kariem Z.A. (1997). Effects of intratesticular injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive performance of low fertile male rab-bits under Egyptian summer conditions. Pp. 557-566 inProc. 1st International Conference on Animal Production and Health. Dokki, Egypt.
Zini A., Finelli A., Phang D. and Jarvi K. (2000). Influence of semen processing on human sperm DNA integrity. Urology. 56, 1081-1084.