Receive Date: 07 March 2011,
Revise Date: 05 August 2011,
Accept Date: 12 October 2011
The study was designed to investigate thehaematological parameters of intensively and semi-intensively kept chicken. 60 males and 60 females chickens were randomly selected from farmers in the area of study. Age of birds were ascertained from farmers and blood samples (one including anticoagulant; one whole blood) collected through wing venepuncture.Significant (P<0.001) age group effect was observed on packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC). The 150 d age group recorded the highest (P<0.001) PCV value (28.74±1.07%). Higher (P<0.001) RBC value (273.70±214 mm) was observed for age group 90 d. For WBC, the 90 d age group had the highest (P<0.001) effect (245.40±5.21 mm3) and 150 d (229.16±7.40 mm3) respectively while 60 d (155.30±5.21 mm3) and 104 d (154.90±5.21 mm3) had the least (P<0.001) respectively. A significant (P<0.001) sex effect was observed with males having higher (P<0.001) values on PCV (27.05±0.44%) and RBC (271.12±1.24 mm), and females recording higher (P<0.001) (214.20±3.01 mm3) values on WBC. There was a significant (P<0.01) effect related to the management system evident for PCV indicating a higher (P<0.01) (25.14±0.57%) effect on semi-intensively kept chicken. A significant (P<0.001) age group effect was also observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Significant (P<0.001) sex effect was evident with females having highest (P<0.001) value on MCHC (17.84±0.26 g/dL) while males had higher (P<0.001) MCV (0.10±1.31 x 1015 fl). A significant (P<0.01) management system effect was also observed on MCHC indicating higher (P<0.01) value (17.52±0.30 g/dL) on intensively kept chicken. A similar significant (P<0.001) management system effect was observed for MCV (0.10±1.63 x 1015 fl) for semi-intensively kept chicken recording higher values. A significant (P<0.01) age effect was evident for power of hydrogen (PH) with the highest value recorded for 150 d (7.91±0.12) and 60 d had least value (7.31±0.09). A significant (P<0.001) sex effect was observed on PH with males having higher (P<0.01) value (7.72±0.05) and on haemoglobin concentration (Hbc) (42.40±0.60 g/dL) respectively. Generally, blood parameter values increase with age in birds while males had higher values than females.
Adebayo A.A. and Tukur A.L. (1999).AdamawaStatein Map. Paraclete Publishers, Yola. Pp. 27-31. Akunyiba A.O. and Orji B.I. (1987). Haematological studies in guinea fowl. J. Anim. Sci. 1-5. Alodan A.M. and Mashaly M.M. (1999). Effect of induced molting in laying hens on production and immune parameters. Poultry. Sci. 78,171-177. Assoku R., Penhale W. and Buxton A. (1970). An immunological basis for the anemia of acute Salmonella gallinarum infection of chickens. Clin. Exp. Imm. 7, 865-871. Awotwi E.K. (1990). A study of baseline haematological values of domestic and commercial chickens in Ghana. Bull. Anim. Health. Prod. Afri.38, 453-458. Brown B.A. (1976). Haematological Principles and Procedures. Pp. 56-86 in2nd Ed, Lea FebigerPhiladelphia. Christie G. (1979). Haematological and chemical findings in eight-weeks old brown leghorn cockerels. Br. Vet. J. 135-279. Coles E.H. (1974). Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 4th Ed., E.H. Coles, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, U.S.A. Forlan R.L., Macari M., Matherious R.D., Moraes V.M.B. and Malherious E.B. (1999). Effect of age and strain on haematology and blood bio-chemical parameters in broiler chickens. Rev. Bras. Dec. Avian. 1, 77-84. Garacyk S., PliszczackrolA., Kotonski B., Wilczek J. and Chmrelak Z. (2003). Examination of haematological and metabolic changes mechanism of acute stress in turkeys. Electronic J. Polish Agric. Un. Vet. Med. 6,1-10. Hernandez R., Ferro J.A., Gonzales E., Bernal F.E.M. and Ferro M.I.T. (2002). Resistance to ascites syndrome homiothermic. competence and levels of HSP70 in the heart and lungs of broilers. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 31,1442-1450. Iheukwumere F.C. and Herbert U. (2002). Physiological responses of broiler chickens to quantitative water restrictions: Haematology and serum biochemistry. Inter. J.Poult. Sci. 2,117-119. Khan M.Z., Szarek J., Koncicki A. and Krasnodebska Depta A. (1994). Oral administration monensin and lead to broiler chicks: effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. Acta. Vet. Hung. 42,11-20. KralI.and Suchy P. (2000). Haematological studies in adolescent breeding cocks. Acta. Vet. Bras. 69,189-194. Kurtoglu F., Kurtoglu V., CelikI., Kececi T. and Nizamlioglu M. (2005). Effect of dietary boron supplementation on some biochemical parameters, peripheral blood lymphocytes, splenic plasma cells and bone characteristics of broiler chicks given diets with adequate or inadequate cholecalferol (Vitamin D3) content Br. Poult. Sci. 46, 87-96. Lamosova D., Malabova M. and Zeman M. (2004). Effects of short-term fasting on selected physiological functions in adult male and female Japanese quail. Acta. Vet. Brno. 73, 9-16. Mushi E.Z., Binta M.G., Chabo R.G. and Ndebele R.T. (1999). Haematological studies on apparently healthy Tswana indigenous chickens Gallus domesticus around Gaborone, Botswana. INFPD Newsl. 9, 83-88. Odunsi A.A., Onifade A.A. and Babatunde G.M. (1999). Response of broiler chicks to virginimycin and dietary protein concentrations in the humid tropics. Arch. Zoot. 48(183), 317-325. Oguz H.T., Kececi Y.O., Birdane F. and Kurtoglu V. (2002). Effect of clinoptilolite on blood biochemical and haematological aflotoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci.69, 89-93. Okeke G.C., Orji B.I. and Akunyiba A.O. (1987). Haematological studies on guinea fowl. J. Anim. Sci. 3, 70-73. Oyewale J.O. (1987). Heamatology indices of Nigerialocal chicken, Bull. Anim. Health. Prod. Afri. 35,109-115. Perrins C., Christopher k. and BuffaloN.Y.(2003). Encyclopaedia of Birds. Firefly Books Ltd. Peters S.O., Ikeobi C.N.O., Ozele M.O. and Debambo O.A. (2002). Genetic variation in the reproductive performance of the Nigerian indigenous chicken. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest. 5, 37-46. Seiser P.E.,Duffy L.K., Mcguire A.D., Roby D., Golet G.H. and Litzow M.A. (2000). Comparison of pigeon guillemot: Blood parameters from oiled and onoiled areas of Alaskaeight years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Mar. Bull.40,152-164. Smith M.F., West H.N. and Jones R.D. (2000). The cardiovascular system. Pp. 141-223 inAvian Physiology. G.C. Wittow, Ed., 5th Ed., Academic Press, San Diego. Sonaiya E.B. (1997). African network on rural poultry development. Progress Report, November 1989-June 1995. Pp. 134-143 inProc. ANRPD Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,. Steel, R.G.D. and Torries J.H. (1990). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometric Approach. McGraw Hill, New York, Pp. 633. Suchy P. (2002). Haematological studies in adolescent breeding cocks. Acta. Vet. Brno.69,189-194. Swenson M.J. (1970). Physiological properties, cellular and chemical constituents of blood. Pp.75-83 in Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals. 8th Ed., Comstock Publishing Associates, CornellUniversityPress, Ithaca, London. Tanaka T. and Rozengurt M.M. (1954). Haematological parameter of domestic pigeons. Poult. Sci.33, 831. Tras B., Inal F., Bas A.L., Altunok V., Elmas M. and Yazar E. (2000). Effects of continuous supplementation of ascorbic acid, aspirin, vitamin E and selemium on some haematological parameters and serum superoxide dismustase level in broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 664-666. Vecerek V., Strakova E., Suchy P. and Volslacrova E. (2002). Influence of high environmental temperature on production and haematological and biochemical indexes in broiler chickens. Czech. J. Anim. Sci. 47(5), 176-182. Yeong S.W. (1999). Effect of dietary protein level on growth performance of village chicken. Pp. 2519-2520 inProc. National IRPA. Seminar Agric. Sector.