Effect of Garlic Powder (Allium sativum) and Black Seed (Nigella sativa) on Broiler Growth Performance and Intestinal Morphology

Document Type: Research Article


Department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of garlic powder (GP) black seed (BS) and plant premix (GP and BS) in the diet on broiler growth performance and intestinal morphology. included 480 Hubbard broiler chicks(day-old). There were 4 treatment groups each consisting of 3 replicates. The four dietary treatments consisted of a control (basal diet), basal diet +0.5% GP, basal diet +0.5% BS and basal diet +0.5% (GP and BS), to the starter and finisher diet. The experiment lasted 42 days. Body weight , body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were determined weekly and intestinal morphology was determined at the end of the study (42 day). The addition of GP and BS plant premix (GP and BS) to the diet resulted in significantly higher body weight, body weight gain and feed intake than control group. However, feed conversion ratio was not influenced by dietary treatment (P>0.05). The villus height,crypt depth and crypt depth to villus height ratio was significantly higher in Black seed and plant premix (GP and BS) than other groups. While villus height, crypt depth and crypt depth to villus height ratio were lower in the control group compared to the other groups (P-value). It was found that the goblet cells were not affected by any treatment. Based on the results of this study it could be suggested to supplement broiler feed with 0.5% GP.


Al-Homidan A., Al-Qarawi A.A., Al-Waily S.A. and Adam S.E.I. (2002). Respons of broiler chicken to dietary Rhazay stricta and Nigella sativa. Br. Poult. Sci. 43, 291-296.
Apajalahti J., Kettunen A. and Graham H. (2004). Characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbial communities, with special reference to the chicken. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 60, 223-232.
Castanon J.R. (2007). History of the use of antibiotic as growth promoters in European poultry feeds. Poult. Sci. 86, 2466-2471.
Durrani F.R., Sultan A., Sajjad A., Chand N., Khattak F.M. and Durrani Z. (2007). Efficiency of aniseed extract as immune stimulant and growth promoter in broiler chicks. Paks. J. Biol. Sci. 10(20), 3718-3721.
Geyra A., Uni Z. and Sklan D. (2001). Enterocyte dynamics and mucosal development in the posthatch chick. Poult. Sci. 80,776-782.
Hall P.A., Coates P.J., Ansari B. and Hopwood D. (1994). Regulation of cell number in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: the importance of apoptosis. J. Cell. Sci. 107, 3569-3577.
Hemandez F., Madrid J., Garcia V., Orengo J. and Megias M.D. (2004). Influence of two plant extracts on brolier performance, digestibility and digestive organs size. Poult. Sci. 83, 169-174.
Khan M.A.V., Ashfag M.K., Zuberi H.S., Mohmood M.S. and Gilani A.H. (2003). The in vivo antifungal of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytother. Res. 17, 183-186.
Krinke A.L. and Jamroz D. (1996). Effects of feed antibiotic avoparcine on organ morphology in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 75, 705-710.
Ertas O.N., Güler T., Çiftçi M., Dalkiliç B. and Yilmaz O. (2005). The effect of a dietary supplement coriander seed on the fatty acid composition of breast muscle in Japanese quail. Rev. med. 10, 514-518.
Montagne L., Pluske J.R. and Hamp D.J. (2003). A review of interactions between dietary fibre and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 108, 95-117.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Ed. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. USA.
Osman A.M. and El-Barody A. (1999). Growth performance and immune response of broiler chicks as affected by diet density and Nigella sativa seeds supplementation. Egyptian Poult. Sci. J. 37, 43-50.
Ravindran V., Kornegay E.T. and Webb K.E. (1984). Effects of fiber and virginiamycin on nutrient absorption, nutrient retention and rate of passage in growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 59, 400-408.
Santin E., Maiorka A., Macari M., Grecco M., Sancheez J.C., Okada T.M. and Myasaka A.M. (2001). Performance and intestinal mucosa development of broiler chickens fed diets containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 10, 236-244.
SAS Institute. (1996). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6.11. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Tollba A.A.H. and Hassan M.S.H. (2003). Using some natural additives to improve physiological and productive performance of broiler chicks under high temperature conditions. 2. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) or garlic (Alliurn Sativurn). Poult. Sci. 23, 327-340.
Uni Z., Noy Y. and Sklan D. (1999). Posthatch development of small intestinal function in the poult. Poult. Sci. 78, 215-222.
Vidanaravhvhi L.L.,Mikkelsen I.M. and Choct M. (2006). Selected plant extract modulate the gut microflora in broiler. Aust. Poult. Sci. Symp. 18, 145-148.
Visek W.J. (1978). The mode of growth promotion by antibiotics. J. Anim. Sci. 46, 1447-1469.
Yason C.V., Summers B.A. and Schat K.A. (1987). Pathogenesis of rotovirus infection in various age groups of chickens sod turkeys: Pathology. American J. Vet. Res. 48, 927-938.