Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
Receive Date: 19 September 2011,
Revise Date: 18 October 2011,
Accept Date: 01 November 2011
Some wild Ganoderma lucidum were found growing on logs of dead wood and tree stumps at different location of the Nasarawa State College of Agriculture, Lafia and the Faculty of Agriculture, Lafia Campus, during the wet rainy season. The matured fruiting bodies seen as red open caps were removed for proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient evaluation. The result showed that the fruiting bodies contained appreciable amount of crude protein (16.79%±0.13), carbohydrate (63.27%±0.2) and crude fibre (7.77%±0.34). The crude fat (1.52%±0.09) and fatty acid (1.22%±0.07) were low, making it a valuable nutritional ingredient for utilization in poultry production. The ash content of the mushroom (8.42%±0.13) also showed it contained appreciable amount of nutritionally important minerals, Ca (1.99%±0.04), K (1.11%±0.04), Na (229.88±0.34), Fe (121.37±1.82), Mn (71.06±1.56), Zn (51.49±2.16) and P (30.17±1.29) parts per million (ppm). Magnesium (0.34%±0.01) and copper (7.43±0.13) were least. The anti-nutrients, tannins (18.27%±0.30), phytates (2.43%±0.09), trypsin inhibitors (2.39%±0.11), saponins (1.26%±0.06), oxalates (0.57%±0.06) and cyanide content (0.08%±0.01) were low. The presence of these essential nutrients, which are nutritional requirements of poultry, implies it could be utilised as a feed supplement to improve growth performance and health of poultry. It was therefore concluded that wild Ganoderma lucidum contained appreciable amount of nutrients and could be utilized to improve growth performance and health status of poultry.
Adeyeye E.I. (2002). Determination of the chemical composition of the nutritional valuable parts of male and female common West African fresh water crab (Sudananoutes africanus). Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 53, 189-196. Akinyeye R.O., Oluwadunsin A. and Omoyeni A. (2010). Proximate mineral, anti-nutrients and phytochemical screening and amino acid composition of the leaves of Pterocarpus mildbraedi Harms. Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 9(8), 1322-1333. Akinyeye R.O., Oluwadunsin A. and Omoyeni A. (2011). Proximate, mineral, anti-nutrients and phytochemical screening and amino acid composition of the leaves of Pterocarpus mildbraedi Harms. Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 10(1), 1848-1857. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Bello M.O., Farade O.S., Adewusi S.R.A. and Olawore N.O. (2008). Studies of some lesser known Nigerian fruits. African J. Biotechnol. 7, 3972-3979. Dei H.K., Rose S.P. and Mackenzie A.M. (2007). Sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal as a feed ingredient for poultry. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 63, 611-624. Gordon M.N. and Kessel M. (2002). Perspective in Nutrition. McGraw Hill Company, 5th Ed. Ohio, New York. Greenfield H. and Southgate D.A. (2003). Food Composition Data. Production Management and Use, 2nd Ed. Rome, FAO. Guil J.L. and Isasa M.E.T. (1997). Nutritional composition of leaves of Chenopodium species.Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 48, 321-327. Guo F.C., Savelkoul H.F.J., Kwakkel R.P., Williams B.A. and Verstegen M.W.A. (2003). Immunoactive, medicinal properties of mushroom and herb polysaccharides and their potential use in chicken diets. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 59, 427-440. Hassan L.G., Umar K.J., Dangoggo S.M. and Maigandi A.S. (2011). Anti-nutrient composition and bioavailability prediction as exemplified by calcium, iron and zinc in Melocia carchorifolia leaves. Pakistan J. Nutr. 10, 23-24. Jong S.C. and Birminghan J.M. (1992). Medicinal benefits of the mushroom, Ganoderma. Appl. Microbiol. 37, 101-134. Ketiku A.O. and Ola L. (1999). Chemical composition and effects of mushroom (Lentinus subnudus) preparations on the lipid profile of rats. Trop. Anim. Prod. 2, 169-174. Kilgour O.F.G. (1987). Mastering Nutrition. MacMillan Education Ltd, London. Kupin V. (1994). A new biological response modifier, Ganoderma lucidum and its application in oncology Pp. 36-37 in Proc. 6th International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum. Seoul, II Yang. Louis C. and Krieger C. (1967). The Mushroom Handbook. Dover Publications Inc., New York. Merck M. (2005). Mineral Deficiencies. The Merck Veterinary Manuel, 9th Ed. Merck and Co. Inc., Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA. Muhammad A., Dangoggo S.M., Tsafe A.I., Itodo A.U. and Atiku F.A. (2011). Proximate minerals and anti-nutritional factors of Gardenia aqualla (Gauden dutse) fruit pulp. Pakistan J. Nutr. 10(6), 577-581. Oei P. (2003). Mushroom cultivation. Pp. 1-7 in Appropriate Technology for the Mushroom Growers; CTA, 3rd Ed., Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. Ogbe A.O. (2008). The use of Ganoderma lucidum in improvement of antibody response to infectious bursal disease vaccination and treatment of caecal coccidiosis in chickens. Ph D. Thesis. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Ogbe A.O., Uyai A., Ahmed I.L., Joda J., Elisha D., Lombin L.H., Zwandor N.J., Joannis M.T., Mgbojikwe L.O., Pam D.T., Atawodi S.E. and Abdu P.A. (2005). A preliminary study on the use of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as source of protein supplement and probiotic in poultry production: implication on human health. Pp. 91-95 in Proc. 1st Nigeria International Poultry Summit (NIPS), Nigeria. Ogbe A.O., Mgbojikwe L.O., Owoade A.A., Atawodi S.E. and Abdu P.A. (2008). The effect of a wild mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) supplementation of feed on the immune response of pullet chickens to infectious bursal disease vaccines. Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem.7(4), 2844-2855. Ogbe A.O., Ditse U., Echeonwu I., Ajodoh K., Atawodi S.E. and Abdu P.A. (2009a). Potential of a wild mushroom, Ganoderma Sp, as feed supplement in chicken diet: effect on performance and health.Int. J. Poult. Sci. 8(11), 1052-1057. Ogbe A.O., Atawodi S.E., Abdu P.A., Sannusi A. and Itodo A.E. (2009b). Changes in weight, faecal oocyst count and packed cell volume of Eimeriatenella-infected broilers treated with a wild mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) aqueous extract. J. South African Vet. Assoc. 80(2), 97-102. Ogbe A.O., Atawodi S.E., Abdu P.A., Oguntayo B.O. and Noel D. (2010). Oral treatment of Eimeria tenella-infected broilers using aqueous extract of wild mushroom (Ganoderma Sp): effect on haemotological parameters and histopathology lesions. African J. Biotechnol. 9(52), 8923-8927. Ogbe A.O., Efenu P., Nicholas U., Pam A., Abarshi A., Banyigyi S. and Odugbo M. (2011). Response to treatment of skin ailments in animal patients using aqueous Ganoderma extract. Elect. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem.10(1), 1816-1820. Olawuyi J.F. (1996). Biostatistics: A Foundation Course in Health Sciences. 1st Ed., University College Hospital, Tunji Alabi Printing Co. Total Garden, Ibadan, Nigeria. Oluyemi E.A., Akilua A.A., Adenuya A.A. and Adebayo M.B. (2006). Mineral contents of some commonly consumed Nigerian foods. Sci. Focus. 11, 153-157. Sofowora A. (1992). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa; John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Ife, Nigeria. Stavinoha W., Slama J., Weintraub S. and Mobley P. (1991). The anti-inflammatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum. Pp. 9-21 in Proc. Third International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum, Seoul, Korea. Stavinoha W. Satsangi N. and Weintraub S. (1995). Study of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum. Pp. 1-3 in Recent Advances in Ganoderma lucidum Research. B.K. Kim and Y.S. Kim Eds. Seoul, Korea Pharmaceutical Society. Sundu B., Kumar A. and Dingle J.G. (2006). Palm kernel meal in broiler diets: effect on chicken performance and health. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 62(2), 316-325. Thompson L.U. (1993). Potential health benefits and problems associated with anti-nutrients in foods. Int. J. Food Res. 26, 131-149. Wachtel-Galor S., Tomlinson B. and Benzie I.F. (2004). Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. British J. Nutr. 91(2), 263-269. Won S.J., Lee S.S., Ke Y.H. and Lin M.T. (1989). Enhancement of splenic natural killer (NK) cytotoxic by extracts of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium in mice. J. Biomed. Lab. Sci. 2, 201-213. Zakhary J.W., Taiseer M., Abo-Bakr A., EL-Mahdy A. and Tabey S.A. (1983). Chemical composition of wild mushrooms collected from Alexandria, Egypt. Food Chem. 11, 31-41.