Alternative Feed Resources and Their Effects onthe Parametersof Rumen Fermentation, in situ Degradability, the Population of Ciliated Protozoaand the in vitro Gas Production Profile in Sicilo-Sarde Sheep

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

School of Higher Education in Agriculture in Mateur, Tunisia

Abstract

The effect of the substitution of imported raw materials (corn and soyabeans) by local food resources (barley, white sorghum, triticale and horse bean) on the parameters of faciesfermentation and digestibility in the rumen of sheep was evaluated. Four Sicilo-Sarde rams 4.8±0.5 years of age with an average live weight of 45.25±3.5 kg, permanently canulated in the rumen and housed in individual cages were used. Rams received a daily ration in two equal meals. The diet contained 1.5 kg DM of oat hay, complemented by one of four concentrates. During the test, 50 mL of rumen fluid were collected from each animal before and 2, 5, and 8 hours after the morning meal to measure the pH and ammonia nitrogen. Determining the total gas (CO2 and CH4) was performed on filtered rumen contents, collected before the distribution of the morning meal. Counting and classifying different types of ciliates were carried out on unfiltered rumen juice, collected two hours after the morning meal distribution. The dry matter digestibility of the basal diet was determined by nylon bags calibrated during fixed hours (3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48). Results showed that the rumen pH was statistically different (P<0.05) before and 2 hours after the morning meal distribution among different types of concentrates, but remained constant at the end of the day (P>0.05). The rate of ammonia nitrogen was in favor (P<0.05) of CCbf and CCms concentrates 5 and 8 hours postprandially. The amount of ammonia in the rumen decreased significantly without a significant difference among diets (P>0.05).The population of ciliates for the concentrate CCbf was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those for CCms, CCsf and CCtf concentrates while different genus of these protozoa were comparable among diets. The total volume of gas produced was lower for the CCbf regimen (P<0.05) compared to other diets. The degradation of DM evolves for different schemes with significant difference (P<0.05) for concentrates CCbf and CCtf.

Keywords


Andrade P.V.D., Giger-Reverdin S., Chapoutot P. and Pierres J.L. (2004).Liaison entre la dégradabilité « in sacco » des aliments et les paramètres fermentaires ruminaux des animaux fistulés. Rencontre Recherche Ruminants. 11, 203-207.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Castillejos L., Calsamiglia S., Ferret A. and Losa R. (2007). Effects of dose and adaptation time of a specific blend of essential oil compound on rumen fermentation. Anim. Feed Sci. Te-chnol. 132, 186-201.
Chikagwa-Malunga S.K., Adesogan A.T., Szabo N.J., Littell R.C., Phatak S.C., Kim S.C., Arriola K.G., Huisden C.M., Dean D.B. and Krueger N.A. (2009). Nutritional characterization of Mucuna pruriens 3. Effect of replacing soybean meal withMucuna on intake, digestibility,N balance and microbialprotein synthesis in sheep. Anim.Feed Sci. Technol. 148, 107-123.
Choct M. (1997). Feed Non-Starch Polysaccharides: Chemical Structures and Nutritional Significance. Feed Milling International, June Issue.
Conway E.J. (1962). Microdiffusion Analysis and Volumetric Error 5th Ed., Crosby Lock Wood and Sons. London.
Dehority B.A. and Tirabasso P.A. (2001). Effect of feeding frequency on bacterial and fungal concentrations, pH, and other parameters in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 79, 2908-2912.
Demeyer D. and Fievez V. (2000). Ruminants et environnement: la méthanogenèse. Ann. Zootech. 49, 95-112.
Duncan D.B. (1955). Multiple ranges and multiple F test. Biometrics. 11, 1-42.
Eugene M., Archimède H., Weisbecker J.L., Periacarpin F., Saminadin G. and Sauvant D. (2004). Effects of defaunation on digestion and growth, in sheep receiving a mixed diet (fresh digitaria decumbens grass and concentrate) at four proteins to energy ratios. Anim. Res. 53, 111-125.
Giger S., Sauvant D., Durand M. and Hervieu J. (1988). Influence de la nature de l'aliment concentré sur quelques paramètres de la digestion dans le rumen. Reprod. Nutr. Déve. 28(1), 117-118.
Grela E.A. (1996). Nutrient composition and content of antinutritional factors in spelt (triticum spelta L) cultivars. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71(3),399-404.
Hammami M., Rouissi H., Selmi H., Rekik B. and Ben Gara A. (2009). Effects of replacing Soya with Vicia faba beans on fermentation in the rumen of the ovine Sicilo- Sarde breed. 6th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology. Clermont- Ferrand. France.
Jouany J.P. (1991). Defaunation of the rumen. Pp. 245 in Rumen Microbial Metabolism and Ruminant Digestion. J.P. Jouany, Ed. Paris, France.
Jouany J.P. (1994). Les fermentations dans le rumen et leur optimisation. INRA Prod. Anim. 7(3), 207-225.
Jouany J.P. and Ushida K. (1999). The role of protozoa in feed digestion. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12, 113-128.
Jouany J.P. and Senaud J. (1982). Influence des ciliés du rumen sur la digestion des différents glucides chez le mouton. I. Utilisation des glucides pariétaux (cellulose et hémicellulose) et de l’amidon. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 22, 735-752.
Kayouli C., Jouany J.P. and Ben Amor J. (1991). Comparison of microbial activity in the forestomachs of the dromedaries and the sheep measured in vitro and in Sacco on mediterranean ro-ughages. Anita. Feed Sci. Technol. 33, 237-245.
Larbier M. and Lerclercq B. (1992). Nutrition et Alimentation des Volailles. Editions Quae. INRA, Paris.
Mahouachi M., Haddad L., Kayouli C., Théwis A. and Beckers Y. (2003). Effects of the nature of nitrogen supplementation on voluntary intake, rumen parameters and ruminal degradation of dry matter in sheep fed Oat silage- based diets. Small Rumin. Res. 48, 181-187.
Maisonnier-Grenier S., Dalibard P. and Geraert P.A. (2005). Interet d'une préparation multienzymatique sur des régimes à base de Maïs-Soja chez le Poulet. Sixièmes Journées de la Recherche Avicole, St Malo.
May M.G., Otterby D.E., Linn J.G. Hansen W.P. Johnson D.G. and Putnam D.H. (1993). Lupins (Lupinus albus) as a protein supplement for lactating Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 2682-2691.
Menke K.H. and Steingass H. (1988). Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28, 7-55.
Michalet-Doreau B. and Sauvant D. (1989). Influence de la nature du concentré ou céréale ou pulpe de betterave, sur la digestion chez les ruminants. INRA Prod. Anim. 2, 235-244.
Michalet-Doreau B., Geay Y., Doreau M. and Poncet C. (1987).Interaction entre espèce animale et nature de l’aliment concentré sur la digestibilité de la ration chez le ruminant. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 27, 277-278.
Moss A.R. and Givens D.I. (2002). The effect of supplementing grass silage with soya bean meal on digestibility, in Sacco degradability, rumen fermentation and methane production in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 97, 127-143.
Oetzel G.R., Nordlund K.V. and Garret E.F. (1999). Effect of ruminal pH and stage of lactation on ruminal lactate concentrations in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 38-47.
Ogimoto K. and Imai S. (1981). Atlas of Rumen Microbiology. Japanese Science Society Press, Tokyo.
Orskov E.R. and McDonald I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. Cambridge. 92, 499-503.
Poncet C., Rémond D., Lepage E. and Doreau M. (2003). Comment mieux valoriser les protéagineux et les oléagineux en alimentation des ruminants. Fourrages. 174, 205-229.
Rouissi H. (1994). Etude comparative de l'activité microbienne dans le rumen des dromadaires, des ovins et des caprins. Ph D Thèsis. Université de Gent, Belgique.
Rouissi H. and Guesmi A. (2004). Etude comparée de la population des protozoaires ciliés dans le rumen des ovins et caprins. Options méditerranéennes. 1, 57-59.
Rouissi H., Rekik B., Selmi H., Hammami M. and Ben Gara A. (2008). Performances laitières de la brebis Sicilo-Sarde Tunisienne complémentée par un concentré local. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 20(7), 102-108.
Santra A., Karim S.A. and Chaturvedi O.H. (2007). Rumen enzyme profile and fermentation characteristics in sheep as affected by treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate as defaunating agent and presence of ciliate protozoa. Small Rumin. Res. 67, 126-137.
SAS User’s Guide (1989). Version 6.10 for Windows, SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
Sauvant D. (2004). Table de composition et de valeur nutritive des matières premières destinées aux animaux d'élevage. INRA Prod. Anim. 8, 301-117.
Sauvant D. (2000). Granulométrie des rations et nutrition du ruminant. INRA Prod. Anim. 13, 99-108.
Sauvant D., Giger-Reverdin S. and Meschy F. (2006). Le contrôle de l’acidose ruminale latente. INRA Prod. Anim. 19, 69-78.
Sauvant D. and Van Milgen J. (1995). Dynamic aspects of carbohydrate and protein breakdown and the associated microbial matter synthesis. Pp. 71-91 in Ruminant Physiology, W. Engelhardt, S. Vonleanhard, G. Breves and D. Gieseck, Eds. Verlag, Stuttgart.
Selmi H., Hammami M., Rekik B., Ben Gara A. and Rouissi H. (2009b). Effet du remplacement du soja par la féverole sur la production du gaz "in vitro" chez les béliers de race Sicilo- Sarde. Livest. Res. Rural. Dev. 21(7), 33-37.
Selmi H., Hammami M., Rekik R., Salah N., Ben Gara A. and Rouissi H. (2009a). Effet du remplacement du soja par la féverole sur les protozoaires ciliés dans le rumen des béliers de race Sicilo- Sarde. Lives. Res. Rural. Dev. 21(9), 103-109.
Williams A.G. and Withers S.E. (1993). Changes in the rumen microbial population and its activities during the refaunation period after the reintroduction of ciliate protozoa into the rumen of defaunated sheep. Can. J. Microb. 39, 61-69.
Yanagita K., Kamagata Y., Kawaharasaki M., Suzuki T., Nakamura Y. and Minato H. (2000). Phylogenetic analysis of methanogens in sheep rumen ecosystem and detection of methanomicrobium mobile by fluorescence In situ hybridization. Bioscience. Biotechnol. Biochem. 64, 1737-1742.