Toxic Impact of Sub-Chronic Oral Exposure of Cyfluthrin on Antioxidant Status in Buffalo Calves

Document Type : Research/Original Article


Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology,College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, 141004, Ludhiana, India


Cyfluthrinm[cyano[4-fluoro-3-phenoxyphenyl]-methyl-3-[2,2-dichloroethenyl]-2,2-dimethyl-cyclo propane carboxylate] is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, that has both contact and stomach poison action. The present study evaluated the long-term toxic effects of cyfluthrin on antioxidant status in buffalo calves. Oral administration of cyfluthrin at a dose rate of 10 and 20 mg/kg/d for 11 consecutive weeks did not produce any marked toxic symptoms in the buffalo calves. However, the oral administration of cyfluthrin resulted in a significant increase in the extent of lipid peroxidation. This increase was dose dependent with an elevation to the extent of 48.5% in low dose group and 64.4% in the high dose group. Similarly there was also an increase in the enzymic activity of glutathione peroxidase to the extent of 16.9% and 18.8%, in low-dose and high-dose groups respectively. The repeated administration of cyfluthrin produced a significant depletion of the blood glutathione levels as well as the enzymic activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Thus on the basis of the present investigation it can be concluded that cyfluthrin is a moderately toxic pesticide.


Aebi H.E. (1983). Catalase. Pp. 273-386 in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, H.O. Bergmeyer. Ed. Vol. III. Academic press, New York.
Bebe F.N. and Panemanglore M. (2003). Exposure to low doses of endosulfan and chloropyrifos modifies endogenous antioxidants in tissues of rats. J. Environ. Sci. Health. 38, 349-363.
Behne D.K.A. (2001). Mammalian selenium-containing proteins. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 21,453-473.
Benjamin M.M. (1985). Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. 3rd Ed., Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India.
Beutler E., Duron O. and Kelly B.M. (1963). Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 61, 882-888.
Carlberg I. and Mannervik B. (1985). Glutathione reductase. Meth. Enzymol. 113, 484-490.
Deutsch J. (1978). Maleimide as an inhibitor inmeasurement of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Clin. Chem. 24, 885-889.
Ecobichon D.J. (2001). Toxic effects of pesticides. Pp. 763-809 in Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons.C.D. Klaassen, Ed., McGraw. Hill. New York, NY, USA.
El-Tawil O.S. and Abdel-Rahman M.S. (2001). The role of enzyme induction and inhibition on cypermethrin hepatotoxicity. Pharmacol. Res. 44,33-40.
Habig W.H., Pabst M.J. and Jakoby W.B. (1974). Glutathione-S-transferase: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 7130-7139.
Hafeman D.G., Sunde R.A. and Hoekstra W.G. (1974). Effect of dietary selenium on erythrocyte and liver glutathione peroxidase in the rat. J. Nutr. 104, 580-587.
Kelly S.A., Harvilla K.M., Brady T.C., Abrano K.H. and Leveir E.D. (1998). Oxidative stress in toxicology: established mammalian and emerging piscine model systems. Environ. Health. Perspect. 106, 375-384.
Laskowski D.A. (2002). Physical and chemical properties of pyrethroids. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 174,149-170.
Marklund S. and Marklund G. (1974). Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European J. Biochem. 47,469-474.
Rana S.V.S., Allen T. and Singh R. (2002). Inevitable glutathione, then and now. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 40, 706-716.
Sadowska W.I., Wójcik N., Karowicz B.A. and Bieszczad B.E. (2010). Effect of selected antioxidants in beta-cyfluthrin-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro. Toxicol In vitro. 24(3), 879-884.
Snedecor G.W. and Cochran W.G. (1967). Statistical Methods. 6th Ed., Allied Pacific, Bombay.
Verma R.D. and Srivastava N. (2000). Chlorpyrifos induced alterations in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and glutathione in rat brain. J. Exp. Biol. 7, 174-177. 
  • Receive Date: 07 October 2011
  • Revise Date: 26 November 2011
  • Accept Date: 02 December 2011
  • First Publish Date: 01 March 2013