Ruminal Degradation Kinetics of Wheat Straw Irradiated by High Doses of Electron Beam

Document Type : Research Article


1 Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam irradiation at doses of 250 and 500 kGy on the chemical composition and ruminal dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability of wheat straw. Nylon bags of untreated or irradiated wheat straw were suspended in the rumen of three rams for up to 72 h, and resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate the degradation parameters of DM and NDF. Electron beam irradiation had no effect on crude protein, ether extract and ash, but decreased (P<0.05) contents of NDF and acid detergent fiber. The water soluble and potentially degradable fractions, degradation rate and effective degradability of DM and NDFincreased linearly (P<0.001) with increases in irradiation dose. Based upon these results, electron beam irradiation can be used to improve DM and NDF degradation kinetics of wheat straw in the rumen.


Alberti A., Bertini S., Gastaldi G., Iannaccone N., Macciantelli D., Torri G. and Vismara E. (2005). Electron beam-irradiated textile cellulose fibers. Europ. Poly. J.41, 1787-1797.
Al-Masri M.R. and Zarkawi M. (1994a). Effects of gamma irradiation on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 44, 661-663.
Al-Masri M.R. and Zarkawi M. (1994b). Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions of some agricultural residues. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 43, 257-263.
AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Bak J.S., Ko J.K., Han Y.H., Lee B.C., Choi I.G. and Kim K.H. (2009). Improved enzymatic hydrolysis yield of rice straw using electron beam irradiation pretreatment. Biores. Technol. 100, 1285-1290.
Banchorndhevakul S. (2002). Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 64, 417-422.
Bouchard J., Methot M. and Jordan B. (2006). The effects of ionizing radiation on the cellulose of woodfree paper. Cellulose. 13, 601-610.
Charlesby A. (1995). Degradation of cellulose by ionizing radiation. J. Polym. Sci. 15, 263-270.
Chaudhry A.S. (2000). Rumen degradation in sacco in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83, 313-323.
Driscoll M., Stipanovic A., Winter W., Cheng K., Manning M., Spiese J., Galloway R.A. and Cleland M.R. (2009). Electron beam irradiation of cellulose. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 78, 539-542.
Flachowsky G., Bar M., Sabine A. and Tiroke K. (1990). Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of irradiated wood by products. Biol. Wast. 34, 181-189.
Gralak M.A., Mahmood S. and Barej W. (1994). Rumen degradability of dry matter and crude fibre of irradiated and sodium hydroxide treated straws. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 47, 63-74.
Grous W.R., Converse A.O. and Grethlein H.E. (1986). Effect of steam explosion pretreatment on pore size and enzymic hydrolysis of poplar. Enz. Micro. Technol. 8, 274-330.
Huntingdon J.A. and Givens D.I. (1995). The in situ technique for studying the rumen degradation of feeds: a review of the procedures. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. Ser. B. 65, 63-91.
Iller E., Kukeielka A., Stupinska H. and Mikolajczyk W. (2002). Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 63, 253-257.
ISO / ASTM. (2005). Practice for Use of a Cellulose Triacetate Dosimetry System. West Conshohocken, PA: A-STM International. ISO/ASTM 51650.
Morrison I.M. (1983). The effect of physical and chemical treatments on the degradation of wheat and barley straws by rumen liquor-pepsin and pepsin-cellulase systems. J. Sci. Food Technol. 34, 1323-1329.
Ørskov E.R. and McDonald I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92, 499-503.
Ørskov E.R., Shand W.J., Tedesco D. and Morrice L.A.F. (1990). Rumen degradation of straw 10. Consistency of differences in nutritive value between varieties of cereal straws. Anim. Prod. 51, 155-162.
Ramanzin M., Bailoni L. and Schiavon S. (1997). Effect of forage to concentrate ratio on comparative digestion in sheep, goat and fallow deer. Anim. Sci. 64, 163-170.
Sahoo B., Sarawat M.L., Haque N. and Khan M.Y. (2002). Influence of chemical treatment of wheat straw on carbon, nitrogen and energy balance in sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 44, 201-206.
SAS Institute. (1996). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6.11. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Steel R.G.D. and Torrie J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, 2nd Ed. McGraw Hill, New York, USA.
Takacs E., Wojnárovits L., Borsa J., Földvári Cs., Hargittai P. and Zöld O. (1999). Effect of gamma irradiation on cotton cellulose. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 55, 663-666.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Van Soest P.J. (1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.
Wasikiewicz J.M., Yoshii F., Nagasawa N., Wach R.A. and Mitomo H. (2005). Degradation of chitosan and sodium alginate by gamma radiation, sonochemical and ultraviolet methods. Radiat. Physiol. Chem. 73, 287-295.
Yang C., Zhiqiang S., Guoce Y. and Jianlong W. (2008). Effect and aftereffect of gamma radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. Biores. Technol. 99, 6240-6245.
Yosef E. and Ben-Ghedalia D. (2000). Changes in the alkaline-labile phenolic compounds of wheat straw cell walls as affected by SO2 treatment and passage through the gastro-intestine of sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83, 115-126.