Department of Animal Production, Facultyof Agriculture, AinShamsUniversity, Cairo, Egypt
Receive Date: 20 February 2011,
Revise Date: 17 March 2011,
Accept Date: 02 May 2011
Twenty pregnant buffaloes, eight weeks before the expected calving date, were assigned into two homogeneous groups of 10 animals each, according to their season of lactation (2nd to 8th season of lactation); The first group (G1) were fed on a ration consisting of concentrate feed mixture (22% yellow corn, 35% cotton seed meal, 33% wheat bran, 4% rice bran, 3% molasses, 2% limestone and 1% sodium chloride), rice straw and berseem (in winter) berseem hay or corn silage (in summer) according to the feeding regime of the traditional farm system. The second group (G2) was fed the control ration plus 10 ml black seed oil (BSO)/head/day. After calving, the offspring of buffaloes of each group were divided into two similar groups of five animals each, according to their birth weight. Calves of T1 and T2 represented the offspring of G1 buffaloes (the control group) while those of T3 and T4 belonged to buffaloes of G2. The results showed that nutrients digestibility were nearly similar for both G1 and G2 (P>0.05). Total plasma protein, albumin, GPT, GOT, plasma immunoglobulin and blood hematocrit for lactating buffaloes tended to be higher (P<0.05) in G2 than those of G1. Four days after parturition showed insignificant differences regarding total solid, fat, solid not fat, total protein, lactose and ash. The treated group (G2) showed higher (P<0.05) total solid, fat, solid not fat, total protein and ash content than those of G1, while lactose value was nearly similar. The results of buffalo calves showed that the highest (P<0.05) values of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract (except that of ether extract; P>0.05) digestibility were recorded for T2 compared to those of the other groups (T1, T3 and T4), but those in T3 showed the lowest values. Calves fed supplemented ration with BSO (T2 and T4) had higher nutrient digestibility values than those of the non supplemented groups (T1 and T3). No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in plasma total protein, albumin, urea, creatin, total lipids, glucose, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, triglyceride, hematocrite and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR). On the contrary, plasma cholesterol concentration was decreased in treated groups (T2 and T4), while plasma immunoglobulin concentration was increased, regarding to calves, performance during the suckling period.
A.O.A.C.(1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlongton, Virginia USA. Abou Raya(1967). Animal and Poultry Nutrition. 1st Ed. Dar-El-Maarif Bookstore, Cairo, Egypt. Al-Ankari A.S. (2005). Immunomodulating effect of black seed n oxytetracycline in pigeons. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 27, 515-520. Allam S.M., El-Hosseiny H.M., Abdel Gawad A.M., El-Saadany S.A. and Zeid A.M.M. (1999). Medicinal herbs and plants as feed additives for ruminant .I. Effect of using some medicinal herbs and plants as feed additives on Zaraibi goat performance. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds. 2, 349-365. Anwar U.L., Gilani H., Jabeen Q., and Khan M.A.U. (2004). A review of medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Nigella sativa.Pakistan. J. Biol. Sci.7, 441-451. Aqel M.B. (1993). Effect of Nigella sativa secds on intestinal smooth musele. Int. J. Pharmacog. 31, 55-60. Armstrong, W.D. and Carr C.W. (1964). Physiological chemistry 3rd ed. P, 75. Burges Publishing Co. Minneapolis, Minnesota. Blinco C. and Dye W.B. (1958). Serum transaminase in white muscle disease.J. Anim. Sci.17, 224-226. Doumas B., Wabson W. and Biggs H. (1971).Albumin standards and measurement of serum with bromocresol green, clin. Chem.Acta. 31(1), 87-96. DuncanD.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F test . Biometric,11(1), 1-42. El-Ashry M.A., El-Serafy A.M., Khattab H.M. and Mohy El-Deen M. (1982). Effect of skim milk , dry matter concentration of milk replacer and the physical form of starter on buffalo calves.1- calf performance and blood serum nitrogen fraction. Sixth international conference on animal and poultry production Zagazig. Sep. 21-23 .1982. El-Bordeny N.E.Y. (2006).Effect of some natural supplements on calves performance. PhD. Thesis, Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ. El-Khenawy K.E., Otteifa A.M., Ezzo O.H. and Hegazy M.A. (1999). post-weaning reproductive activity of Barki ewes lambing in spring fed Nigella sativa oil seed meal . Assiut. Vet. Medical. J.40, 292 . El-Gaafarawy A.M., Zaki A.A., El-Sedfy R. and El-Khenawy K.h.I. (2003). Effect of feeding Nigella sativa cake on digestibility, nutritive value and reproductive performance of Frisian ows and immuno activity of their offspring . Proc. of the 9th conf . on animal nutrition, October. EgyptJ. Nutr. Ffeeds.6, 539- 549 . El-Sayed E.M. and Hashem M.E. (2000). Effect of Nigella sativa on the immune response to Eimeria vaccination in chickens. Egyptian. J. Agr. Res.78, 231-239. El-WafaS.A., Sedki A.A. and Ismail A.M. (2002). Response of growing rabbits to diets containing black seed, garlic or onion as natural feed additives. Egypt. J. Rabbit. Sci.12, 69-83. Fassati P. and Prencipe L. (1982). Triglycerides enzymetic colorimetric method. Clin. Chem. 28, 2077-2081. Forbes R.M. and Garrigus W.P. (1948). Application of alignin ratio technique to the determination of the nutrient intake of grazing animals.J. Anim. Sci.7, 373-382. FringsS.C.S., Ted W.F., Ralph T.D. and Cecelia A.Q. (1972). Improve determination of total serum lipids sulfo-phosphoanilin reaction. Clin. Chem.18, 673-674. Hailat N., Bataineh Z., Lafi S., Raweily E., Aqel M., Al-Katib M. and Hanash S. (1995).Effect of Nigella sativa volatile oil on Jurkat T cell leukemia polypeptides. Int. J. Pharmacol.33, 16-20. Heckner F., Lehmann H.P. and Kao Y.S. (1988). Practical Microscopic Hematology. A Manual for the Clinical Laboratory and Clinical Practice (3rd Ed.). Pp 37-41. Urban and Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, MD. Hilal F.I.S., El-Ashry M.A., Soliman H.S. and Aly H.M. (1999).Newly born buffalo calves receiving milk replacers containing different source and levels of energy density. (2) effect of incorporating high levels of homogenized margarine in local milk replacers for rearing young buffalo calves. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds. 459-471. Ismail A.M., Sedki A.A. and Abdallah A.G. (2003). Influence of black seed, garlic and onion supplementation on reproductive performance in rabbits. Egyptian. J. Agr. Res. 81, 1193-1207. Khodary R., El-Ezzawy M.H. and Hamdy I.R. (1996).Effect of Nigella sativa on egg production, hatchability percentage and some biochemical values in laying hens with references to fertility in cockerels. Proc. 7th Sci. Cong., Fac. Vet. Med., Assuit Univ., 17-19 Nov., Egypt. Merek (1991). The Merek Veterinary Manual. 7th Ed. Nancy E., Pfeiffer M.S., Travis C., Mc Guire D.V.M., Robert B., Bendel, Julie M., Weikel D.V.M. (1977). Quantitation of Bovine Immunoglobulins: Comparison of Single Radial Immunodiffusion, Zinc Sulfate Turbidity, Serum Electrophoresis, and Refractometer Methods. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38(5), 693-699. Nazer A.S. (1983). Effect of the quantity and duration of milk feeding on the growth and development of calves. 2. indicators of functional development of the rumen. Zhivotnov" dninauki. 6, 100-105. NRC (National Research Council) (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. 114 Pp. Ragheb E.E. (2003). Effect of lacto-Sacc and acid pak additives on productive performance of Friesian calves under early weaning system. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds.6, 127-137. Reitman S. and Frankel S. (1957). Calorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic- oxaloacetic and glutamic- pyruvate transeaminase. Ann. J. Clin. Path. 28(1), 56-63. Rodak F.P. (1995). Routin laboratory evaluation of blood cells and bone marrow. In: Diagnostic hematology, Pp: 125-129, W.B. Saunders Comp. Phild. London, Toronto, Montreal, Sydney, Tokyo. SAS. (1995). SAS User’s Guide: Statistics (Version 6.10). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC. Weld Abd. and El-Kader. (2000). Nutritional studies on rearing calves. M.Sc. Thesis, Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ. Yossef M.M.M. (1992). Growth patterns of buffalo calves in relation to rumen development and growth promoters treatment.PhD thesis.Fac. Of Agric Cairo Univ.