Effects of Rice Bran and Phytase Supplementation on Performance, Egg Quality, and Biochemical Parameters of Comercial Hy-Line Hens

Document Type : Research Articles

Authors

Department of Animal Science, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh Branch, Maragheh, Iran

Abstract

Rice bran (RB) is a major by-product, produced from the rice milling process. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, egg quality, and blood biochemical parameters of 288 Hy-line laying hens fed diets with rice bran and commercial microbial phytase Natuphos®5000. The experiment was a 4×2 factorial one with four RB levels (0, 5, 10, and 15%) by two phytase levels (0 and 5000 FTU/kgdiet). These diets were fed to experimental groups from 30 up to 42 week old. The results indicated that there were no significant phytase effects or rice bran levels, on hen-day egg production, feed intake, egg mass, yolk index, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, haugh unit, specific gravity, and shell weight/surface area compared with control group. Inclusion of the RB or phytase in laying hens diets did not significantly influence biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, glucose, total protein and albumin), and cholesterol in yolk. The results suggested that supplementing 5000 FTU/kgdiet of phytase enzyme for layers resulted in no further improvement; it was also indicated that use of RB at a dietary level is beneficial to the laying hens industry, up to 15% in Iran. Moreover, since the price of RB was cheaper than other major ingredients, dietary inclusion of rice bran (RB) would be beneficial.

Keywords


Anonymous. (1998). Hy-Line variety W36 management guide. Hy-Line international, West Des Moines, IA.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
BolingS.D., Douglas M.W., Shirley R.B., Parsons C.M. and Koelkebeck K.W. (2000). The effects of various dietary levels of phytase and available phosphorus on performance of laying hens. Poult. Sci. 79, 535-538.
Casartelli E.M., Jungqueira O.M., Laurentiz A.C., Filardi R.S., Lucas J.R.J. and Araujo L.F. (2005). Effect of phytase in laying hen diets with different phosphorus sources. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 7, 93-98.
Choct M. (1997). Enzymes in animal nutrition: the unseen benefit. Department of Animal Science, University of New England, Armindale, NSW2351, Australia. http://www.idrc.ca//books-/focus/821/chap5/html.
Dafwang I.I. and Shwarmen E.B.N. (1996). Utilization of rice offal in practical rations for broiler chicks. Niger. J. Anim. Prod. 23, 21-23.
Din M.G., Sunde, M.L. and Bird H.R. (1979a). Effects of feeding plant by-products diets on growth and egg production. Poult. Sci. 58, 1274-1283.
DinM.G., Sunde M.L. and Bird H.R. (1979b). Measuring metabolizable energy with mature hens. Poult. Sci. 58, 441-445.
FarrellD.J. (1994). Utilization of rice bran in diets for domestic fowl and ducklings. J. World's Poult. Sci. 50, 115-131.
FarrellD.J., Martin E.A., du Preez J.J., Bongarts M., Betts M., Sudaman A. and Thomson E. (1993). The beneficial effects of a microbial phytase in diets of broiler chickens and ducklings.Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 69, 278-283.
FolchJ., Less M. and Solane Stanley G.H. (1956). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipid from animal tissues. J. Biochem. Chemist. 226, 497-509.
Francesch M., Broz J. and Brufau J. (2005). Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content, and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 46, 340-348.
Gallinger C.I., Suarez D.M. and Irazusta A. (2004). Effects of rice bran inclusion on performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicks. J. Appl. Poult. Res. [Abstr.].
Gordon R.W. and Roland D. (1997). Performance of commercial laying hens fed various phosphorus levels, with and without supplemental phytase. Poult. Sci. 76, 1172-1177.
Gordon R.W. and Roland D.A. (1998). Influence of supplemental phytase on calcium and phosphorus utilization in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 77, 290-294.
Haghnazar A. and Rezaei M. (2004). To determine the metabolizable energy of rice bran and the use of it in layer ration. XII. World's Poultry Congress. 8-13 June, Istanbul.
Hamid H. and Jalaludin S. (1987). Effect of rice bran on production performance of laying hens offered diets with two levels of energy and protein. In: Advances in Ani Feeds and Feeding in the Tropics (Eds. R).
Haugh R.R. (1937). The Haugh for measuring egg quality. United State Egg Poultry Magazine, No. 43, p. 552-555 and 572-573.
IIussein A.S. and Kratzer F.H. (1982). Effect of rancidity on the feeding value of rice bran for chickens. Poult. Sci. 61, 2450-2455.
JalalM.A. and Scheideler S.E.(2001). Effect of supplementation of two different sources of phytase on egg production parameters in laying hens and nutrient digestibility. Poult. Sci. 80, 1463-1471.
JohnstonS.L. (2000). The effect of phytase on nutrient availability in diets for swine and poultry. Ph.D. thesis., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge.
Juanper J., Perez A.M., Venderll E. and Angulo-Brufau J. (2005). Assessement of potential interactions between phytase and glycosidase enzyme supplementation on nutrient digestibility in Broiler. Poult. Sci. 84, 571-580.
Kaminska B.Z. (1997). Effect of supplemental phytase to laying hen diets of different phosphorus content. J. Anim. Feed. Sci. 6, 369-378.
Karunajeewa H. and Tham S.H. (1980). The influence of triticale, rice pollard and dietary fatty acid on growth, egg size and productivity of white leghorn layers. Proceedings of 1980 South Pacific Poultry Science Convention, WPSA, Auckland. New Zealand, 36-43.
Kenny P.C. (1952). The determination of cholesterol by the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 52, 612-619.
Khalil D. and Hohler Henkel H. (1997). Utilization of rice bran and peanut meal in broilers. 1. Characterization of the feed efficiency of rice bran/peanut meal diet. Arch. Gefluegelkd. 61, 88-94.
Khan A.D. (2004). Making rice bran a cereals alternative. Feed Int. June. Pp. 18-19.
Littell R.C., Freund R.J. and Spector P.C. (1991). SAS_System for Linear Models. 3rd Ed. SAS_Series in Statistical Applications. SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.
Mahadevan P., Pandittesekera D.G., White J.S.L. and Arumugam V. (1975). The effects of tropical feeding stuffs on growth and first year egg production. Poult. Sci. 36, 286-295.
Majun G.K. and Payne C.G. (1977). Autoclave rice bran in layers' diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 18, 201-203.
Qian H., Kornegay E.T. and Denbow D.M. (1996). Phosphorus equivalence of microbial phytase in turkey diets as influenced by calcium and phosphorus ratios and phosphorus levels. Poult. Sci. 75, 69-81.
Panda B. and Gupte S.M. (1965). Utilization of rice by-products in animal industry. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2, 120-123.
Parsons C.M. (1999). The effects of dietary available phosphorus and phytase level on long-term performance of laying hens. In: Layer Nutrition and Managemant. BSF Corporation, Mt. Olive, N.J. Pp. 24-33.
Peter W. (1992). Investigations on the use of phytase in the feeding of laying hens, In: Proceeding XIX World's Poultry Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Pp. 62.
Punna S. and Roland D.A. (1999). Influence of supplemental microbial phytase on first cycle laying hens fed phosphorus deficient diets from day one of age. Poult. Sci. 78, 1407-1411.
Ravindran V., Bryden W.L. and Kornegay E.T. (1995). Phytates: occurrence, bioavailability and implications in poultry nutrition. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev. 6, 125-143.
RavindranV., Cabahug S., Ravindran G. and Bryden W.L. (1999b). Influence of microbial phytase on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feedstuffs for broilers. Poult. Sci. 78, 699-706.
SASInstitute. (2002). SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Version 9.1 Ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Scott T.A., Kampen R. and Silversides F.G. (1999). The effect of phosphorus, phytase enzyme, and calcium on the performance of layers fed corn-based diets. Poult. Sci. 78, 1742-1749.
Simon P.C.M. and Versteegh H.A.J. (1993). The effect of the addition of low doses of microbial phytase to layer feed on the technical results and skeleton and egg shell quality. Spelderholt publication No. 589 (NL).
Srichai Y. and Balnave D. (1981). Egg weight response to dietary supplementation with sun flower oil and rice pollard. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 32, 183-188.
Stilborn H.I. and Waldroup P.W. (1990). An evaluation of low-energy feedstuffs in diets for laying hens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol, Ainz. Feed Sci. Techmd. 27, 327-339.
Van Der Klis J.D., Versteegh H.A.J., Simons P.C.M. and Kies A.K. (1997). The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal based diets for laying hens. Poult. Sci. 76, 1535-1542.
Vuilleumier J.P. (1969). “Roche Color Fan” an instrument for measuring yolk color. Poult. Sci. 48, 767-779.
Warren B.E. and Farrell D.J. (1990b). The nutritive value of full fat and defatted Australian rice bran II. Growth studies with chickens, rats and pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 27, 229-246.
Warren B.E. and Farrell D.J. (1990a). The nutritive value of full-fat and defatted Australian rice bran. 1. Chemical composition. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 27, 219-228.
Washburn K.W. and Nix D.F. (1974). A rapid technique for extraction of yolk cholesterol. Poult. Sci. 53, 1118-1122.
Zhang Z., Marquardt R.R., Guenter W. and Han Z. (1997). Effect of different enzyme preparations supplemented in a rye-based diet on the performance young broilers and viscosity of digesta and cloacal excreta. Chinese J. Anim. Sci. 34, 3-6.
Zombade S.S., Lodhi G.N. and Lchhponani J.S. (1982). Evaluation of raw and parboiled rice bran. 11. Feeding value for broilers. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 52, 325-329.