Economic Efficiency of Smallholder in Iran: Adjusted for Market Distortion


1 Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashad, Iran


To measure an unbiased farm-specific efficiency of individual dairy farmers, a shadow-price profit frontier adjusted for market distortion was applied to a sample of 860 Iranian small intensive dairy farms surveyed in 2005-2006. This measure was then compared with that of unadjusted measure that assumes undistorted market. A multiple general linear model (GLM) technique was applied to the data to examine the multiple effects of pure-bred animals, and the used farm capacity on profit efficiency indices. The mean value of adjusted profit efficiency was 0.40, significantly different from the latter measure, i.e. 0.72, revealing overstating efficiency by ignoring imperfect structure of market. The difference between the figures is attributed to an index of market efficiency that was estimated of 46% in average. The number of pure-bred animals in the herd was found to affect the profit efficiency indices. Regardless of their characteristics, all the farms can gain from correcting the distortion in milk market, where small and average-sized farms are domain farms in the country.


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Volume 1, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2011
Pages 161-168
  • Receive Date: 19 September 2010
  • Revise Date: 18 October 2010
  • Accept Date: 26 October 2010
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2011