Effect of Different Levels of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Meat Oxidative Stability and Ruminal Metabolites of Male Goat Kids


Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Animal Science, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran


This study was performed to determine the effects of different levels of chromium methionine (Cr-Met)supplementation on growth performance, meat oxidative stability and ruminal metabolites in male kids. Thirty-two male Mahabadi goat kids, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 22 ± 2 kg at 4 months of age, were allocated in a completely randomized design with four treatments: control without Cr and three levels of Cr supplementation 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg respectively as Cr-Met/animal/d. Diets were the same for the all groups with a ratio forage: concentrate of 30:70, except for the addition of Cr-Met. The animals were fed in two equal meals (at 08:00 and 16:00 h) and the leavings were collected before the morning meal. Animals were kept in individual pens for 100 days. Kids were weighed after 10 days of adaptation period and at 21 days intervals after feed restriction. Kids were slaughtered at the end of the trial and Longissimus dorsimuscle (LDM) samples were immediately stored at -20 ˚C. Thio Barbioturic Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) methods were used in order to measure meat stability. SupplementalCr-Met did not affect (P>0.05) the final BW, total BW gain, dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG). Concentrations of NH3-N and total and individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen were not affected by the Cr-Met (P>0.05). However, Cr-Met supplementation increased rumen pH and decreased ruminal protozoa count (P<0.05). TBARS values of the LDM were significantly increased as the storage time increased from 1 to 2 months (P<0.05). It was also found that increasing dietary chromium supplementation, especially at level of 1.5 mg Cr-Met, significantly decreased lipid oxidation and the TBARS value at 2 months of storage (P<0.05). These results indicate that supplementation of goat kid diet with Cr-Met had minimal effects on growth performance and rumen metabolites but improved oxidative stability of LDM during refrigerated storage kids.


Amoikon E., Fernandez J., Southern L., Thompson Jr.D., Ward T. and Olcott B. (1995). Effect of chromium tripicolinate on growth, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, plasma metabolites, and growth hormone in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 1123-1130.
Anderson R.A., Roussel A.M., Zouari N., Mahjoub S., Matheau J.M. and Kerkeni A. (2001). Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 20, 212-218.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Arthington J., Corah L., Minton J., Elsasser T. and Blecha F. (1997). Supplemental dietary chromium does not influence ACTH, cortisol, or immune responses in young calves inoculated with bovine herpesvirus-1. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 217-223.
Besong S., Jackson J., Trammell D. and Akay V. (2001). Influence of supplemental chromium on concentrations of liver triglyceride, blood metabolites and rumen vfa profile in steers fed a moderately high fat diet. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 1679-1685.
Boleman S.L., Boleman S.J., Bidner T.D., Southern L.L., Ward T.L., Pontif J.E. and Pike M.M. (1995). Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, and tissue accretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 2033-2042.
Bunting L., Fernandez J., Thompson Jr.D. and Southern L. (1994). Influence of chromium picolinate on glucose usage and metabolic criteria in growing holstein calves. J. Anim. Sci. 72, 1591-1599.
Burton J.L. (1995). Supplemental chromium: Its benefits to the bovine immune system. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.53,117-133.
Chang X. and Mowat D. (1992). Supplemental chromium for stressed and growing feeder calves. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 559-565.
Dallago B., McManus C., Caldeira D., Lopes A., Paim T., Franco E., Borges B., Teles P., Correa P. and Louvandini H. (2011). Performance and ruminal protozoa in lambs with chromium supplementation. Vet. Sci. Res. 90,253-256.
Dehority B.A. (1984). Evaluation of subsampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48, 182-185.
Esterbauer H. and Cheeseman K.H. (1990). Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods.  Enzymol. 186, 407-421.
Fornea R., Bunting L., Fernandez J., Depew C. and Southern L. (1994). Chromium picolinate has minimal effects on glucose usage of lambs in either normal or diabetic states. J. Anim. Sci. 72, 257-262.
Gallaher D.D., Csallany A.S., Shoeman D.W. and Olson J.M. (1993). Diabetes increases excretion of urinary malondehyde conjugates in rats.Lipids. 28, 663-666.
Gentry L.R., Fernandez J.M., Ward T.L., White T.W., Southern L.L., Bidner T.D., Thompson D.L., Jr., Horohov D.W., Chapa A.M. and Sahlu T. (1999). Dietary protein and chromium tripicolinate in Suffolk wether lambs: effects on production characteristics, metabolic and hormonal responses, and immune status. J. Anim. Sci. 77, 1284-1294.
Haldar S., Ghosh T., Pakhira M. and De K. (2006). Effects of incremental dietary chromium (cr3+) on growth, hormone concentrations and glucose clearance in growing goats (Capra hircus). J. Agri .Sci. 144, 269-280.
Haldar S., Mondal S., Samanta S. and Ghosh T. (2009). Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance and primary antibody response against peste des petits ruminants in dwarf bengal goats (Capra hircus). Animal. 3, 209-217.
Hodgson E., Cope W.G. and Leidy R.B. (2004). Classes of toxica-nts: use classes. Pp. 49-74 in Textbook of Modern Toxicology. E.A. Hodgson Ed. 3th Ed. Wiley-Interscience, New Jersey.
Kegley E., Spears J. and Eisemann J. (1997). Performance and glucose metabolism in calves fed a chromium-nicotinic acid complex or chromium chloride. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 1744-1750.
Kitchalong L., Fernandez J., Bunting L., Southern L. and Bidner T. (1995). Influence of chromium tripicolinate on glucose metabolism and nutrient partitioning in growing lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 2694-2705.
Klasing K.C. (1993) Comparative Avian Nutrition, Cab International. Univ. Michigan.
Kowsar R., Ghorbani G., Alikhani M., Khorvash M. and Nikkhah A. (2008). Corn silage partially replacing short alfalfa hay to optimize forage use in total mixed rations for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 4755-4764.
Lindemann M.D., Wood C.M., Harper A.F., Kornegay E.T. and Anderson R.A. (1995). Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain:Feed and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 457-465.
Mackie R.I. (1996). Gut environment and evolution of mutualistic fermentative digestion. Gastroint. Microbiol. 1, 13-35.
Mathison G. and Engstrom D. (1995). Chromium and protein supplements for growing-finishing beef steers fed barley-based diets. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 75,549-558.
Mertz W. (1993). Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J. Nutr. 123, 626-633.
Mooney K. and Cromwell G. (1997). Efficacy of chromium picolinate and chromium chloride as potential carcass modifiers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 2661-2671.
Moonsie-Shageer S. and Mowat D.N. (1993). Effect of level of supplemental chromium on performance, serum constituents, and immune status of stressed feeder calves. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 232-238.
Mostafa-Tehrani A., Ghorbani G., Zare-Shahneh A. and Mirhadi S. (2006). Non-carcass components and wholesale cuts of iranian fat-tailed lambs fed chromium nicotinate or chromium chloride. Small Rumin. Res. 63,12-19.
Mowat D., Chang X. and Yang W. (1993). Chelated chromium for stressed feeder calves. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 73, 49-55.
NRC. (1985). Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Ed. Natl. Acad. Sci, Washington, DC.
Ohh S.J. and Lee J.Y. (2005). Dietary chromium-methionine chelate supplementation and animal performance. Asian- Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 18, 898-907.
Page T., Southern L., Ward T. and Thompson Jr.D. (1993). Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 656-662.
Preuss H., Grojec P., Lieberman S. and Anderson R. (1997). Effects of different chromium compounds on blood pressure and lipid peroxidation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin. Nephrol. 47, 325-331.
Rikhari K., Tiwari D. and Kumar A. (2010). Effect of dietary supplemental chromium on nutrient utilization, rumen metabolites and enzyme activities in fistulated crossbred male cattle. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 80, 785-893.
Sahin K., Sahin N. and Kucuk O. (2003). Effects of chromium, and ascorbic acid supplementation on growth, carcass traits, serum metabolites, and antioxidant status of broiler chickens reared at a high ambient temperature (32 ˚C). Nutr. Res. 23, 225-238.
Samsell L.J. and Spears J.W. (1989). Chromium supplementation effects on blood constituents in lambs fed high or low fiber diets. Nutr. Res. 9, 889-899.
SAS Institute. (1996). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6.11. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Weatherburn M. (1967). Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Anal. Chem. 39, 971-974.