Nutrient Intake and Digestibility by West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep Fed Graded Levels of Pigeon Pea Seed Meal


Department of Animal Production and Livestock Management, College of Animal Science and Animal Production, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria


A study was carried out to evaluate nutrient intake and digestibility by West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed graded levels of dietary pigeon pea seed meal (PSM). Four diets designated A, B, C and D were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, and 30% levels of PSM, respectively. Four WAD rams aged between 15 and 17 months and weighing between 16 and 19 kg were used to conduct digestibility study in a 4 × 4 latin square design experiment. Data were collected on dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient intake and digestibility. Simple linear regression and correlation were used to assess relationships between some of the digestion components.There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in DMI among the treatmentmeans.The nitrogen intake (g/d) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the animal group fed PSM based diets rather than in the control group. Fecal nitrogen, though higher in the animals fed diets C and D, did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Urinary nitrogen was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the group fed PSM diets than in the control group. Apparent-nitrogen digestibility was also significantly (P<0.05) higher in the treatment groups fed PSM diets than in the control group. The metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN) and the endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) increased by increasing levels of PSM. The biological value (BV) and digestible crude protein (DCP) also increased significantly (P<0.05) by increasing dietary levels of PSM. The results of this study indicated that dietary boiled pigeon pea seed meal enhanced digestibility and nutrient utilization by West African Dwarf sheep accompanying with the highest N-balance at 20% level of PSM.

Ahamefule F.O. (2005). Evaluation of pigeon pea-cassava peel-based diets for goat production in south eastern Nigeria. Ph D. Thesis. Michael Okpara Univ. Agric. Umudike.
Akinmutimi A.H. (2004). Evaluation of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) as an alternative feed resources for broiler chickens. Ph D. Thesis. Micheal Okpara Univ. Agric. Umudike, Nigeria.
Akinsoyinu A.O. (1974). Studies on protein and energy utilization by the WAD goats. Ph D. Thesis. Univ. Ibadan, Nigeria.
Amaefule K.U. (2002). Evaluation of pigeon pea seeds (Cajanus cajan) as protein source for pullets. Ph D. Thesis. Univ. Nigeria, Nsukka.
Ani A.O. and Okeke G.C. (2003). The substitution of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed meal for soybean in broiler finisher ration. Pp. 10-12 in Proc. 8th Ann. Conf. Anim. Sci. Ass. of Nig. (ASAN). Federal Univ. Tecshnology, Minna, Nigeria.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Basit Ali Shah S. (1991). Nutritional evaluation of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) and its cooking characteristics. Ph D. Thesis. Univ. Punjab Lahore.
Devendra C. and Burns M. (1983). Feed and nutrition. Pp. 90-115 in Goat Production in the Tropics.CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux). Farnharn Royal, Slough, UK.
Devendra C. and McLeroy G.B. (1987). Goat and sheep production in the tropics. Pp. 209-210 in International Tropical Agricultural Series. Longman Publishers. Limited London, New York.
Ellis W.C. (1956). Nutrient utilization by lambs fed purified rations containing urea, geltain, casein, blood fibrin and soybean protein. J. Nutr. 60, 413-425.
Ene-Obong H.N. (1995). Content of anti-nutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of the African yam bean, pigeon pea and cowpea. Plant. Food Hum. Nutr. 48, 225-233.
FAO. (2006). Food and Agricultural Organization. Corporate Document Repository. Rome Italy.
Fasae O.A., Alokan J.A. and Onibi G.E. (2005). Feed intake and digestibility in Yankasa sheep fed diets containing varying levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf residue. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 32(1), 88-93.
Ibeawuchi J.A., Danjuma A. and Oguntona T. (1993). The value of dried poultry waste as a protein supplement for growing Bornu white goats. Disc. Innovat. 5(1),63-68.
Kaankuka F.G., Balogun T.F. and Yaakugh I.D.I. (2000). Effects of duration of cooking raw, full-fat soybeans on dry matter digestibility and energy utilization by young pigs. Pp. 191-193 in Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Nig. Soc. Anim. Prod. (NSAP). Michael Okpara Univ. Agric. Umudike, Nigeria.
Mba A.U., Egbuniwe C.P. and Oyenuga V.A. (1975). Nitrogen balance studies with red Sokoto goats for the minimum protein requirements. East African Agric. For. J. 40(3), 283-291.
NRCRI. (2004).Agro-Meterologic Unit. Nationa Root Crop research Institute, Umudike, Nigeria.
Okali C. and Lipton M. (1984). The market potentials for increased small ruminant production in south-western Nigeria. Pp. 68-74 in Sheep and Goats in Humid West Africa. J.E. Sunbers and K. Cassady Eds.
Olaleru F. and Adegbola T.A. (2001). Effects of source and level of nitrogen on the utilization of sorghum stover by Yankasa rams. Nig. J. Animal. Prod. 28(2),187-192.
Ranjah S.K. (1981). Animal Nutrition in the Tropics 2nd Ed. Vikas Pub. House. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
SAS Institute. (1996). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6.11. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Singh U., Jambunathan R., Saxena K.B. and Subrahmanya N. (1990). Nuritional quality evaluation of newly developed high-protein genotypes of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). J. Sci. Food Agric. 50, 201-209.
Steel R.G.D. and Torrie J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Inc., Tokyo, Japan.