The Effects of Macaroni Wastes and Steam-Flaked Barley Feeding in Transition Period on Health and Lactation Performance of HolsteinCows


Department of Animal Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran


Thirty two multiparous Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to investigate the effects of feeding diets included two different source of nonfiber carbohydrate during the transition period on dry matter intake (DMI), lactational performance, blood metabolites and parturitional characteristics. Cows received total mixed rations containing either macaroni wastes(MW) or steam-flaked barley (SFB) beginning 21 d prior to expected calving date. A common lactation total mixed ration was fed postpartum. Cows fed MW had greater pre and postpartum DMI than cows fed SFB (P<0.001). No treatment effects on milk yield, milk composition, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) were observed. There was no effect of prepartum diets on pre and postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, phosphor, protein, albumin, globulin and cholesterol. Prepartum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were not affected by treatments. Fecal and urine PH were not affected by treatments. Fecal consistency score was reduced for cows that received the SFB diet compared to cows received the MW diet (P≤0.05). Feeding MW prepartum decreased gestation period (P≤0.05). Other parturitional characteristics and health problems did not influence by treatments. MW compared with SFB improved dry matter intake. Lactation performance and metabolic parameters were similar between treatments. From the present results, it could be concluded that the MW might be as a good alternative energy and NFC source for use in transition rations.


AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Chen K.H., Huber J.T., Theurer C.B., Swingle R.S., Simas J., Chan S.C., Wu Z. and Sullivan J.L. (1994). Effect of steamflaking of corn and sorghum grains on performance of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77, 1038-1043.
Dann H.M., Varga G.A. and Putnam D.E. (1999). Improving energy supply to late gestation and early postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 1765-1778.
Frederick H.M., Theurer B. and Hale W.H. (1973). Effect of moisture, pressure and temperature on enzymatic starch degradation of barley and sorghum grain. J. Dairy Sci. 56, 595-601.
Grummer R.R., Hoffman P.C., Luck M. and Bertics S.J. (1995). Effect of prepartum and postpartum dietary energy on growth and lactation of primiparous cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79, 172-180.
Ireland-pperry R.L. and Stallings C.C. (1992). Fecal consistency as related to dietary composition in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 1074-1082.
Johnson D.G. and Otterby D.E. (1981). Influence of dry period diet on early postpartum health, feed intake, milk production, and reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64, 290-295.
Keady T.W.J., Mayne C.S., Fitzpatrick D.A. and McCoy M.A. (2001). Effect of concentrate feed level in late gestation on subsequent milk yield, milk composition, and fertility of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 1468-1479.
Lykos T. and Varga G.A. (1995). Effects of processing method on degradation characteristics of protein and carbohydrate sources in situ. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 1789-1801.
Minor D.J., Trower S.L., Strang B.D., Shaver R.D. and Gruer R.R. (1998). Effects of nonfiber carbohydrate and niacin on periparturient metabolic status of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 189-200.
NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Owens F.N., Secrist D.S., Hill W.J. and Gill D.R. (1997). The effect of grain source and grain processing on performance of feedlot cattle: a review. J. Anim Sci. 75, 868-879.
Putnam D.E., Varga G.A. and Dann H.M. (1999). Metabolic and production responses to dietary protein and exogenous somatotropin in late gestation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 982-995.
Roche J.R., Kay J.K., Phyn C.V.C., Meier S., Lee J.M. and Burke C.R. (2010). Dietary structural to nonfiber carbohydrate concentration during the transition period in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 3671-3683.
SAS Institute. (2000). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 8.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Smith K.L., Waldron M.R., Drackley J.K., Socha M.T. and Overton T.R. (2005). Performance of dairy cows as affected by prepartum dietary carbohydrate source and supplementation with chromium throughout the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 255-263.
Smith K.L., Waldron M.R., Ruzzi L.C., Drackley J.K., Socha M.T. and Overton T.R. (2008). Metabolism of dairy cows as affected by prepartum dietary carbohydrate source and supplemention with chromium throughout the periparturient period. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 2011-2020.
Wildman E.E., Jones G.M., Wagner P.E., Boman R.L., Trout H.F. and Lesch T.N. (1982). A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production variables in high producing Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 65, 495-501.
  • Receive Date: 27 February 2012
  • Revise Date: 17 April 2012
  • Accept Date: 01 May 2012
  • First Publish Date: 01 June 2013