Manganese: A Potent Antioxidant in Semen

Document Type: Review Article


Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, 141004, Ludhiana, India


Antioxidant are the agents which dispose / scavenge the reactive oxygen species, minimize the oxidative stress / lipid peroxidation and ultimately improve the fertilizing potential of the spermatozoa. Currently, many antioxidants are under investigation and manganese is one of them in reducing the oxidative stress both in male and female. The antioxidative action of manganese (Mn2+) on various biological systems has been studied. The high concentration of Mn2+ may be harmful in certain cases, but, its lower doses are effective. Mn2+ in very small amount (µM) affects human health and its deficiency may cause symptoms such as impaired or depressed reproductive functions. It is a cofactor of some antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), pseudo-catalase and photosynthetic oxygen evolving center. It also facilitates the sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. This article reviews the detrimental effects of Mn2+ on male fertility and alterations in physiological functions of spermatozoa on in vitro supplementation of Mn2+. I have also provided information on the role of Mn2 + in other system of the body which may be applied to the future research in the field of reproductive biology.


Agarwal A., Makku K. and Sharma R. (2008). Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: An update.Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 59, 2-11.
Agarwal A., Nallella K.P., Allamaneni S.S.R. and Said T.M. (2004). Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature. Reprod. Biol. Med. 8, 616-627.
Agarwal A., Saleh R.A. and Bedaiwy M.A. (2003). Role of reactive oxygen species in pathophysiology of human reproduction. Fertil. Steril. 79, 824-843.
Anand R.J.K. and Kanwar U. (2001). Role of same trace metal ions in placental membrane lipid Peroxidation. Biol. Trace. Elem. Res. 82, 61-75.
Arabi M. (2005). Antioxidant effect of manganese on human spermatozoa treated in the different conditions comparison with zinc, nickel and trolox.Iranina J. Biol. 17, 3-9.
Bansal A.K. (2006). Effects of antioxidants on crossbred cattle bull spermatozoa under oxidative stress. Ph D Thesis, Punjab Agric. Univ., Ludhiana, India.
Bansal A.K. and Bilaspuri G.S. (2008). Effect of manganese on bovine sperm motility, viability and lipid peroxidation in vitro.Anim. Reprod. 5, 90-96.
Bansal A.K. and Bilaspuri G.S. (2010). Impacts of oxidative stress and antioxidants on semen functions.Vety. Med. Int. 1-7.
Bansal A.K. and Anand R.J.K. (2009). Cooperative functions of manganese and thiol redox system against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. J. Hum Reprod. Sci. 2, 75-79.
Bilaspuri G.S. and Bansal A.K. (2008). Mn2+: A potent antioxidant and stimulator of sperm capacitation and acrsome reaction in crossbred cattle bulls. Arch. Tierz. 51, 149-158.
Braun T. (1975). The effect of divalent cations on bovine spermatozoa adenylate cyclase activity. J. Cycl. Nucleo. Res. 1, 271-281.
Buege J.A. and Steven A.D. (1978). Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Method. Enzymol. 52, 302-310.
Campanella L., Gatta T. and Ravera O. (2005). Relationship between antioxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissue of two fresh water mollusks: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia Unionidae) and viviparous ater(Gastropoda, Prosobranchia).J. Limnol. 64, 153-158.
Cavallini L., Valente M. and Bindoli A.(1984). On the mechanism of inhibition of lipid peroxidation by manganese. Inorg. Chim. Act. 91, 117-120.
Coassin M., Ursini F. and Bindoli A. (1992). Antioxidant effect of manganese.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 299, 330-333.
Du Plessis S.S., Makker K., Desai N.R. and Agarwal A. (2008). Impact of oxidative stress on IVF. Exp. Rev. Obstet. Gynaecol. 3, 539-554.
Eddy E.M. and O’Brien D.A. (1993). The spermatozoa. In: The Physiology of Reproduction. E. Knobil and J.D. NeilEd., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York.
Edmund R., Casillas. and Hoskins D.D. (1971). Adenylate cyclase activity and cyclic 3’-5’ AMP content of ejaculated monkey spermatozoa.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 147, 148-155.
Guraya S.S. (1999). Cellular and molecular biology of capacitation and acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. Int. Rev. Cytol. 199, 1-66.
Kim J.G. and Parthasarathy S. (1998). Oxidation and spermatozoa. Semen. Reprod. Endocrinol. 16, 235-39.
Kumar H. and Mahmood S. (2001). The use of fast acting antioxidants for the reduction of cow placental retention and subsequent endometritis. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 650-653.
Lapointe S., Ahmad I., Buhr M.M. and Sirard M.A. (1996). Modulation of post-thaw motility, survival, calcium uptake and fertility of bovine sperm by magnesium and manganese. J. Dairy Sci. 79, 2163-2169.
Larsen C.J. (1994). The BCL2 gene is a prototype of a gene family that controls programmed cell death (apoptosis). Anal. Genet. 37, 121-127.
Luberda Z. (2005). The role of glutathione in mammalian gametes. Reprod. Biol. 5, 5-17.
Lukac N., Massanyi P., Krockova J., Nad P., Slanocka J., Ondruska L., Formicki G. and Trandzi K.J. (2009). Relationship between trace element concentrations and spermatozoa quality in rabbit semen. Slovak. J. Anim. Sci. 42, 46-50.
Magnus O., Brekke I., Abyholm T. and Purvis K. (1990). Effect of manganese and other divalent cations on progressive motility of human sperm. Arch. Androl. 24, 159-166.
Mann T. and Mann C.L. (1981). Male Reproductive Function and Semen. Springer Verlag, New York.
Miller J.K. and Slebodzinska E.B. (1993). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and animal function. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 2812-2823.
O’Flaherty C., Beconi M. and Beorlegui N. (1997). Effect of natural antioxidants, superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide on capacitation of frozen thawed bull spermatozoa. Andrology. 29, 269-275.
Prestifilippo J.P., Solari J.F., Laurentiis A.D., Mohn C.E., da la Cal C., Reynoso R., Rees W.L. and Rettori V. (2008). Acute effect of manganese on hypothalamic lutenizing hormone realeasing hormenoe releasing hormone secretion in adult rats: Involvement of specific neurotransmitters system. Toxicol. Sci. 105,295-302.
Reddi A.R., Jensen L.T., Naran U.A., Rosenfeld L., Leung E., Shah R. and Culotta V.C. (2009). The overlapping roles of manganese and Cu / ZnSOD in oxidative stress protection. Free Radical. Biol. Med. 46, 154-162.
Said T.M., Grunewald S., Paasch U., Rasch M., Agarwal A. and Glander H.J. (2005). Effects of magnetic-activated cell sorting on sperm motility and cryopreserved rates. Fertil. Steril. 83, 1442-1446.
Sharma R.K. and Agarwal A. (1996). Role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility.Urology. 48, 835-850.
Shukla G.S. and Chandra V.C. (1981). Manganese toxicity: Lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Acta. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 48, 95-101.
Sikka S.C. (1996). Oxidative stress and role of antioxidants in normal and abnormal sperm function. Frontiers. Biosci. 1, 78-86.
Tam B.K. and McCay P.B. (1970). Reduced triphosphoryridine nucleotide oxidase catalyzed alterations of membrane phospholipids 3 transietn formation of phospholipid peroxides. J. Biol. Chem. 245, 2295-2300.
Tampo Y. and Yonaha M. (1992). Antioxidant mechanism of Mn (II) in phospholipids peroxidation. Free. Rad. Biol. Med. 13, 115-120.
Tash J.S. and Means A.R. (1983). Cyclic adenosine 3’-5’ monophosphate, calcium and protein phosphorylation in flagellar motility. Biol. Reprod. 28,101-112.