Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid and Butylated Hydroxylanisole in Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broiler Chickens

Document Type : Research/Original Article


Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institut Izatnagar, 254122, Uttar Pradesh, India


The effect of ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) supplementation on aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens (1 to 42 days of age) was investigated (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm for AA and BHA) in diet containing 1 ppm total aflatoxin (AF: 76.45% AFB1, 10.52% AFB2, 9.89% AFG1 and 3.14% AFG2). A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were divided into ten treatment groups (T1=control; T2= T1+1 ppm AF; T3= T1+250 ppm AA; T4= T1+500 ppm AA; T5= T2+250 ppm AA; T6= T2+5000 ppm BHA; T7= T1+1000 ppm BHA; T8= T1+2000 ppm BHA; T9= T2+1000 ppm BHA; T10= T2+2000 ppm BHA). The results showed that inclusion of 1 ppm of total aflatoxin in the diet resulted in a significant decrease in body weight gain (BWG). Supplementation of AA or BHA to the AF contaminated diets increased BWG of broilers (P<0.05). Additing AA at both levels to the aflatoxin contaminated diet did not ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on FC. Incorporation of AA and BHA each at both levels, in aflatoxin contaminated diet could not ameliorate the ill effects of aflatoxicosis on feed efficiency in broiler chickens. The serum protein content of group T5 did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of T2, however, serum protein content in T6 was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of T2. Indicating that inclusion of 250 ppm AA in the aflatoxin contaminated diet did not improve serum cholesterol content significantly. Inclusion of 500 ppm AA in the aflatoxin contaminated diet improved (P<0.05) the serum cholesterol content, however, the value was lower (P<0.05) than that of control. Serum uric acid content in T6 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T2, however. The aspartate animotransferase (ASAT) values in groups T5, T6 and T9 did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of T2. The alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) values in groups T5, T6, T9 and T10 did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from to that of control, indicating that both AA and BHA each at both levels significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on ALAT activities. It is thus concluded that dietary supplementation of AA at 250 and 500 ppm; and BHA at 1000 and 2000 ppm levels provided partial protection from adverse effects of aflatoxicosis caused by 1 ppm total AF in terms of BWG and blood biochemical parameters. However, inclusion of AA and BHA, each at both levels, in aflatoxin contaminated diet could not ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on feed efficiency. The present study further showed that BHA was more efficacious than AA in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxicosis on BWG in broiler chickens.


Ahamad D.B. (2000). Pathology of citrinin mycotoxicosis in broiler chicken. MS Thesis. Tamil NAdu Vet. Anim. Sci. Univ., Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Arafa A.S., Bloomer R.J., Wilson H.R., Simpson C.F. and Harms R.H. (1981). Susceptibility of various poultry species to dietary aflatoxin. Br. Poult. Sci. 22, 431-436.
Aycicek H., Aksoy A. and Sagyi S. (2005). Determination of aflatoxin levels in some dairy and food products consumed in Ankara, Turkey. Food Control. 16, 263-266.
Azzam A.H. and Gabal M.A. (1997). Interaction of aflatoxin in the feed and immunization against selected infectious diseases. I. Infectious bursal disease. Avian Pathol. 26, 317-325.
Basmacioglu H., Oguz H., Ergul M., Col R. and Birdabe Y.O. (2005). Effect of dietary esterified glucomannan on performance, serum biochemistry and heamatology in broilers exposed to aflatoxin. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 50, 31-39.
Bailey R.H., Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Buckley S.A. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1998). Efficacy of various inorganic sorbents to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 77, 1623-1630.
Bilgrami K.S., Sinha S.P. and Ranjhan K.S. (1989). Modulation of protective effect of vitamin C on aflatoxicosis. Cur. Sci. 58, 820-821.
Chew B.P. (1995). Antioxidant vitamins affect food animal immunity and health. J. Nutr. 125, 18045-18085.
Coulombe Jr.R.A., Guarisco J.A., Klein P.J. and Hall J.O. (2005). Chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis in poultry by dietary butylated jydroxytoluene. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 121, 217-225.
Doll S. and Danicke S. (2004). In vitro detoxification of fusarium toxins. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 58, 419-441.
Earp H.S., Watson B.S. and Neg R.L. (1970). Adenosine 3, 5 monophosphate as the mediator of ACTH-induced as acid depletion in the rat adrenal. Endocrinology. 87, 118-123.
Giambrone J.J., Diener U.L., Davis N.D., Panangala V.S. and Hoerr F.J. (1985). Effects of aflatoxin on young turkeys and broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 64, 1678-1684.
Giray B., Girgin G., Engin A.B., Aydin S. and Sahin G. (2007). Aflatoxin levels in wheat samples consumed in some regions of Turkey. Food Control. 18, 23-29.
Halliwell B. and Gutteridge J.M.C. (1999). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press.
Harvey R.B., Kubena L.F., Elissalde M.H. and Phillips T.D. (1993). Efficacy of zeolite ore compounds on the toxicity of aflatoxin in growing broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 37, 67-73.
Huff W.E., Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Cirrier D.E. and Mollenhauer H.H. (1986). Progression of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 65, 1891-1899.
Huwig A., Friemud S., Kappeli O. and Dutler H. (2001). Mycotoxin detoxification of animal feed by different adsorbents. Toxicol. Lett. 122, 179-188.
Johri T.S. and Sadagopan V.R. (1989). Aflatoxin occurrence in feed stuffs and its effect on poultry production. J. Toxicol. 8, 281-287.
Kececi T., Oguz H., Kurtoglu V. and Demet O. (1998). Effects of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, synthetic zeolite and bentonite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Br. Poult. Sci. 39, 452-458.
Klein P.J., Buckner R., Kelly J. and Coulombe Jr.R.A. (2000). Biochemical basis for the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B1. Toxicol. App. Pharmacol. 165, 42-45.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Phillips T.D., Corrier D.E. and Huff W.E. (1990). Diminution of aflatoxicosis in growing chickens by dietary addition of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. Poult. Sci. 69, 727-735.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Huff W.E., Elissalde M.H., Yersin A.G., Phillips T.D. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1993). Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. Poult. Sci. 72, 51-59.
Kubena L.F., Edrington T.S., Kamps-Holtzapple C., Harvey R.B., Elissalde M.H. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1995). Effects of feeding fumonisin B1 present in fusarium moniliforme culture material and aflatoxin singly and in combination to turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 74, 1295-1303.
Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Bailey R.H., Buckley S.A. and Rottinghaus G.E. (1998). Effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (T-bind TM) on mycotoxicosis in young broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 77, 1502-1509.
Kurtzman C.P., Horn B.W. and Hesseltine C.W. (1987). Aspergillus nomius, a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamari. Antonie Leeuwenhoek. 53, 147-158.
Ledoux D.R., Rottinghaus G.E., Bermudaz A.J. and Alonso-Debolt M. (1999). Efficacy of a hydrated calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 78, 204-298.
Li Y. and Lovell R.T. (1985). Elevated levels of dietary ascorbic acid increase immune responses in channel catfish. J. Nutr. 115, 123-131.
Miazzo R., Rosa C.A., De Queiroz Carvalho E.C., Magnoly C., Chiacchiera S.M., Palacio G., Saenz M., Kikot A., Basaldella E. and Dalcero A. (2000). Efficacy of synthetic zeolite to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 79, 1-6.
Oguz H. and Kurtoglu V. (2000). Effect of clinoptilolite on fattening performance of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 512-517.
Oguz H., Kececi T., Birdane Y.O., Onder F. and Kurtoglu V. (2000). Effect of clinoptilolite on serum biochemical and haematological characters of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 69, 89-93.
Oguz H., Hadimli H.H., Kurtoglu V. and Erganis O. (2003). Evaluation of humoral immunity of broilers during chronic aflatoxin (50 and 100 ppb) and clinoptilolite exposure. Rev. Med. Vet. 154, 483-86.
Okotie-Eboh G.O., Kubena L.F., Chinnah A.D. and Baileys C.A. (1997). Effects of β-carotene and canthaxanthin on aflatoxicosis in broilers. Poult. Sci. 76, 1337-1341.
Ortatatli M. and Oguz H. (2001). Ameliorative effects of dietary clinoptilolite on pathological changes in broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 71, 59-66.
Pardue S.L. (1987). Influence of ascorbic acid on aflatoxicosis in broiler cockerels. Poult. Sci. 66, 156-157.
Parlat S.S., Yildiz A.O. and Oguz H. (1999). Effect of clinoptilolite on fattening performance of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) during experimental aflatoxicosis. Br. Poult. Sci. 40, 495-500.
Peraica M., Domijan A., Jurjevic Z. and Cvjetkovic B. (2002). Prevention of exposure to mycotoxins from food and feed. Arch. Hig. Rada. Toksikol. 53, 229-237.
Phillips T.D., Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Taylor D.R. and Heidelbaugh N.D. (1988). Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate: A high affinity sorbent for aflatoxin. Poult. Sci. 76, 243-237.
Pickett C. and Liu S. (1989). Glutathione S-transferases: gene structure, regulation and biological function. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58, 743-764.
Raju M.V.L.N. and Devegowda G. (2000). Influence of esterified glucomannan on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and hematology in broilers exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin). Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 640-650.
Reddy R.A., Reddy V.R., Rao P.V. and Yadagiri B. (1982). Effect of experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the performance of commercial broiler chicks. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 52, 405-410.
Rosa C.A., Miazzo R., Magnoli C., Salvano M., Chiac S.M., Ferrero S., Saenz M., Carvalho E.C. and Dalcero A. (2001). Evaluation of the efficacy of bentonite from the south of Argentina to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broilers. Poult. Sci. 80, 139-144.
Sahoo P.K.and Mukherjee S.C. (2003). Immunomodulation by dietary vitamin C in healthy and aflatoxin B1-induced immunocompromised rohu (Labeo rohita). Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26, 65-76.
Salem M.H., Kamel K.I., Yousef M.I., Hassan G.A. and El Nouty F.D. (2001). Protective role of ascorbic acid to enhance semen quality of rabbits treated with sublethal doses of aflatoxin B1. Toxicology. 21, 209-218.
Sapocota D., Islam R. and Baruah K.K. (2007). Protective efficacy of dietary methionine in experimental aflatoxicosis in broilers. Indian j. Anim. Sci. 77, 1170-1172.
Santurio J.M., Mallmann C.A., Rosa A.P., Appel G., Heer A., Dageforde S. and Bottcher M. (1999). Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins. Br. Poult. Sci. 40, 115-119.
Scheideler S. (1993). Effects of various types of aluminosilicates and aflatoxin B1 on aflatoxin toxicity, chick performance, and mineral status. Poult. Sci. 72, 282-288.
Shehata S.A., El-Melegy Kh.M. and Ebrahim M.S. (2009). Toxicity reduction of aflatoxin B1 by vitamin C in fish. J. Arabian aqua. Soci. 4, 73-85.
Shotwell O.L., Hesseltine C.V., Stubblefield R.D. and Sorenson W.G. (1966). Production of aflatoxin on rice. Appl. Microbiol. 14, 425-429.
Surai P.F. (2001). Natural Antioxidants in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction. Nattingham University Press, UK.
Verma J. (1994). Studies on the effect of dietary aflatoxin, ochratoxin and their combinations on performance, energy and protein utilization in poultry. Ph D Thesis. Deemed Univ., IVRI, Izatnagar.
Volume 3, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2013
Pages 595-603
  • Receive Date: 29 March 2012
  • Revise Date: 27 June 2012
  • Accept Date: 06 July 2012
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2013