Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Berari Goat Population of Maharashtra State

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Biotechnology, Saifia Science College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India

2 Department of Biotechnology, Saifia Science College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

3 Institute of Veterinary and Animal Science, Akola, Maharashtra, India

4 National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India

Abstract

Berari goats are medium sized animals reared mainly for meat purpose. They are predominantly brown and blackish brown in colour with glossy hair and found in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state. Berari is not a recognized breed but a well established local population of goat which is yet to be fully explored for its phenotypic and genetic aspects. Within population genetic variation was examined in Berari goat population using microsatellite markers. The observed number of alleles varied from 4 (ILSTS05, OarJMP29) to 26 (OarFCB304) with a mean of 11.76 whereas the effective number of allele varied from 1.15 (OarJMP29) to 11 (ILSTS059) with a mean of 4.95. The effective number of allele is lesser than observed number at all the loci. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.47 (OarJMP29) to 0.92 (OarFCB304) with the mean value of 0.82. Shannon’s information index which measures the level of diversity ranged from 0.32 (OarJMP29) to 2.61 (ILSTS059) with average of 1.76 ± 0.55. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.10 (OarJMP29) to 1 (RM088) with the average of 0.67 and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 (OarJMP29) to 0.91 (ILSTS059) with the average of 0.73. Six of the twenty five loci showed the negative inbreeding coefficient as also depicted by the Hd value for the same loci. The unbiased expected gene diversity (Nei’s) ranged from 0.14 (OarJMP29) to 0.92 (ILSTS059) with the overall mean 0.73 ± 0.19. The L-shaped curve obtained indicates that Berari goat population has not undergone any recent bottleneck. The genetic variability exhibited by the Berari goats can be suitably exploited for its genetic improvement and sustainable conservation.

Keywords


Allendorf F.W. and Leary R.F. (1986). Heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations of animals. Pp. 57-76 in Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. M.A. Sunderland Ed. Soule, Sinauer Associates, Univ. Minnesota.
Barker J.S.F. (1994). A global protocol for determining genetic distances among domestic livestock breeds Pp. 501-508 in Proc. 5th World Cong. Gen. Appl. Livest. Prod., Goelph.
Barker J.S.F., Tan S.G., Moore S.S., Mukherjee T.K., Matheson J. and SelvRaj O.S. (2001). Genetic variation within and relationships among populations of Asian goats Capra hiricus. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 118, 213-233.
Behl R., Sheoran N., Behl J., Vijh R.K., and Tantia M.S. (2003). Analysis of 22 heterologous microsatellite markers for genetic variability in Indian goats. Anim. Biotechnol. 14, 167-175.
Behara A.M.P., Colling D.T., Cothran E.G. and Gibson J.P. (1998). Genetic relationships between horse breeds based n microsatellite data: applications for livestock conservation. Pp. 119-122 in Proc. 6th World Cong. Gen. Appl. Livest. Prod. Armidal. Australia.
Botstein D., White R.L., Skolnick M. and Davis R.W. (1980). Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. American J. Hum. Genet. 32, 314-331.
Boyce W., Hedrick M.P.W., Muggli-Cockett N.E., Kalinowski S., Penedo M.C. and Ramey R.R. (1996). Genetic variation of major histocompatibilty complex and microsatellite loci: a comparison in Bighorn sheep. Genetics. 145, 421-433.
Cannon J., Checa M.L., Carleos C., Vega-Pla J.L., Vallego M. and Dunner S. (2000). The genetic structure of Spanish Celtik horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data. Anim. Genet. 31, 30-48.
Cornuet J.M. and Luikart G. (1996). Description and power analysis of two tests for detecting recent population bottlenecks from allele frequency data. Genetics. 144, 2001-2014.
Dixit S.P., Verma N.K., Ahlawat1 S.P.S., Aggarwal R.A.K.,Kumar S. and Singh K.P. (2008). Molecular genetic characterization of Kutchi breed of goat. Curr. Sci. 95(7), 946-952.
Dixit S.P., Verma N.K., Aggarwal R.A.K., Vyas M.K., Rana J., Sharma A., Tyagi P., Arya P. and Ulmek B.R. (2010). Genetic diversity and relationship among southern Indian goat breeds based on microsatellite markers. Small Rumin. Res. 91, 153-159.
Dixit S.P., Verma N.K., Aggarwal R.A.K., Vyas M.K., Rana J., Sharma A. and Chander R. (2011). Genetic variability and bottleneck analyses of Kanniadu goat breed based on microsatellite markers. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 81(1), 43-48.
Kim K.S., Yeo J.S., Lee J.W., Kim J.W. and Choi C.B. (2002). Genetic diversity of goats from South Korea and China using microsatellite analysis. Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. 5, 461-465.
Kimura M. and Crow J.F. (1964). The number ofalleles that can be maintained in a finite population.Genetics. 49, 725-738.
Kumar S., Dixit S.P., Verma N.K., Singh D.K., Pandey A., Kumar S., Chander R. and Singh L.B. (2009). Genetic diversity analysis of the gohilwari breed of Indian goat (Capra hircus) using microsatellite markers. American J. Anim. Vet. Sci. 4(3),49-57.
Kumar D., Pandey A.K., Ahlawat S.P.S., Malik G., Sharma R., Gour D.S., Dixit S.P., Verma N.K.,Aggarwal R.A.K., Gupta N. and Gupta S.C. (2005). Genetic variability and bottleneck analysis of Jakhrana goats by microsatellite DNA fingerprinting. Korean J. Genet. 27(3), 235-245.
Levene H. (1949). On a matching problem arising in genetics. Ann. Math. Stay. 20, 91-94.
Lewontin. R.C. (1972). The apportionment of human diversity. Evol. Biol. 6, 381-398.
Luikart G., Biju-Duval M.P., Ertugrul O., Zagdsuren Y., Maudet C. and Taberlet P. (1999). Power of 22 microsatellite markers in fluorescent multiplexes for parentage testing in goats (Capra hiricus). Anim. Genet. 30, 431-438.
Mishra P., Verma N.K., Aggarwal R.A.K. and Dixit S.P. (2010). Breed characteristics and genetic variability in changthangi goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 80(12), 43-48.
Mishra P., Ali A.S., Aggarwal R.A.K., Dixit S.P., Kawitkar V.S. and Dangi P.S. (2012). Genetic diversity and bottle neck analysis of Konkan Kanyal goats. Anim. Genet. Res. 50, 43-48.
Mahmoudi B. (2010). Genetic diversity of Lori goat population based on microsatellite marker. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 4(1), 13-19.
Payne W.J.A. and Wilson R.T. (1999). An Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics. Long man Scientific and Technical United States, New York, Longman Scientific and Technical, USA.
Saitbekova N., Gaillard C., Obexer-Ruff G. and Dolf G. (1999). Genetic diversity in Swiss goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis. Anim. Genet. 30, 36-41.
Sambrook J., Fritsch E.F. and Maniatis T. (1989).Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Takahashi H., Nyamsamba D., Mandakh B., Zagdsuren Y.O., Amano T., Nomura K., Yokohama M., Ito S. and Minezawa M. (2008). Genetic structure of mongolian goat populations using microsatellite loci analysis. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 21(7), 947-953.
Verma N.K., Dixit S.P., Aggarwal R.A.K., Chander R., Kumar S. and Ahlawat S.P.S. (2007). Genetic analysis of the Sirohi breed of Indian goat (Capra hircus). Korean J. Genet. 29, 129-136.
Yeh F.C., Boyle T., Rongcai Y., Ye Z. and Xian J.M. (1999).POPGENE version 1.31. A microsoft window based freeware for population genetic analysis. University of Alberta, Edmonton.