1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, 83523, Qena, Egypt
2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, 82524, Sohag, Egypt
3Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, 82524, Sohag, Egypt
Receive Date: 01 May 2012,
Revise Date: 01 September 2012,
Accept Date: 27 September 2012
The present study investigated serum cortisol in response to postpartum ovarian resumption and luteal function. Postpartum ovarian resumption was detected based on a rise in progesterone (P4) concentrations during three weeks after calving. Twenty two Holstein cows in a semi-closed dairy farm in Qena city, Egypt were used. The study was carried out from late March to early June; the period characterized by a good temperature humidity index (THI) and absence of heat stress. According to the concentrations of P4 in serum (P4 >1.0 ng/mL), 11 of the 22 cows resumed the ovarian activity within three weeks after calving (ovarian resumption cows). No effect of THI was found during the postpartum period of study on the concentrations of P4, cortisol and cholesterol in the ovarian resumption or non-ovarian resumption group. In the former, cholesterol showed a significant correlation with both P4 (r=0.405, P<0.05) and cortisol (r=0.393, P<0.05). However, in the latter, cholesterol had a significant correlation with P4 (r=0.289, P<0.05) but showed no correlation with cortisol. In addition, cortisol showed a significant correlation with P4 (r=0.329, P<0.05) in the ovarian resumption group but showed no correlations in the non-resumption group. Our study suggests that cortisol plays a role in the function of corpus luteum and maintenance of luteal life span during this period.
Acosta T.J., Tetsuka M., Matsui M., Shimizu T., Berisha B., Schams D. and Miyamoto A. (2005). In vivo evidence that local cortisol production increases in the preovulatory follicle of the cow.J. Reprod. Dev. 51, 483-489.
Andersen C.Y. (2002). Possible new mechanism of cortisol action in female reproductive organs, physiological implications of the free hormone hypothesis. Endocrinology. 173, 211-217.
Breen K.M. and Karsch F.J. (2004). Does cortisol inhibit pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion at the hypothalamic or pituitary level? Endocrinology. 145, 692-698.
Breen K.M. and Karsch F.J. (2006). New insights regarding glucocorticoids, stress and gonadotropin suppression. Front Neuroendocrinol. 27, 233-245.
Breen K.M., Billings H.J., Wagenmaker E.R., Wessinger E.W. and Karsch F.J. (2005). Endocrine basis for disruptive effects of cortisol on preovulatory events. Endocrinology. 146, 2107-2115.
Daley C.A., Sakurai H., Adams B.M. and Adams T.E. (1999). Effect of stress-like concentrations of cortisol on gonadotroph function in orchidectomized sheep. Biol. Reprod. 60, 158-163.
Duong H.T., Piotrowska Tomala K.K., Acosta T.J., Bah M.M., Sinderewicz E., Majewska M., Jankowska K., Okuda K. and Skarzynski D.J. (2012). Effects of cortisol on pregnancy rate and corpus luteum function in heifers: an in vivo study. J. Reprod. Dev. 58, 22-230.
Echternkamp S.E. and Hansel W. (1973). Concurrent changes in bovine plasma hormone level prior to and during the first postpartum oestrous cycle. J. Anim. Sci.37, 1362-1370.
Francisco C.C., Spicer L.J. and Payton M.E. (2003). Predicting cholesterol, progesterone, and days to ovulation using postpartum metabolic and endocrine measures. J. Dairy Sci. 86, 2852-2863.
Gwazdauskas F.C., Thatcher W.W. and Wilcox C.J. (1972). Adrenocorticotropin alteration of bovine peripheral plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone and progesterone. J. Dairy Sci. 55, 1165-1168.
Hahn G.L. (1969). Predicted vs. measured production differences using summer air conditioning for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 52, 800-801.
Kawate N., Inaba T. and Mori J. (1993). Effects of cortisol on the amounts of estradiol-17βand progesterone secreted and the number of luteinizing hormone receptors in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 32, 15-25.
Lewis G.S. (1997).Uterine health and disorders. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 984-994.
Lucy M.C. (2007). Fertility in high-producing dairy cows: reasons for decline and corrective strategies for sustainable improvement. Soc. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 64, 237-254.
Lussier-cacun S., Bolte E., Bidallier M., Huag Y.S. and Davignon J.J. (1977). Cyclic fluctuations of plasma cholesterol in the female miniature swine and its relationship to progesterone secretion. Pp. 471-474 in Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.
Malven P.V. (1984). Pathophysiology of the puerperium. definition of the problem. Pp. 1-8 in Proc. 10th Int. Cong. Anim. Reprod. A.I., Urbana-Champain, USA.
Mc Dowell D., Hooven N. and Cameron K. (1979). Effects of climate on performance of Holsteins in first lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 68, 2418-2435.
Michael A.E., Thuston L.M. and Rae M.T. (2003). Glucocorticoid metabolism and reproduction: a tale of two enzymes. Reproduction.126, 425-441.
Myers M.M., Lamont M.C., Driesche S.V., Mary N.K., Thong J., Hillier S.G. and Duncan W.C. (2007). Role of luteal glucocorticoid metabolism during maternal recognition of pregnancy in woman. Endocrinology. 148, 5769-5779.
Oakley A.E., Breen K.M., Clarke I.J., Karsch F.J., Wagenmaker E.R. and Tilbrook A.J. (2009). Cortisol reduces gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency in follicular phase ewes: influence of ovarian steroids. Endocrinology. 150, 341-349.
Opsomer G., Mijten P., Coryn M. and De Kruif A. (1996). Postpartum anoestrus in dairy cows: a review. Vet. Q.18, 68-75.
Peter A.T., Vos P.L.A.M. and Ambrose D.J. (2009). Postpartum anestrus in dairy cattle.Theriogenology. 71, 1333-1342.
Roche J.F., Dackey D. and Diskin M.D. (2000). Reproductive management of postpartum cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 61, 703-712.
Rueda B.R., Hendry I.R., Hendry I.W., Stormshak F., Slayden O.D. and Davis J.S. (2000). Decreased progesterone levels and progesterone receptor antagonists promote apoptotic cell death in bovine luteal cells. Biol. Reprod. 62, 269-276.
Savio J.D., Boland M.P., Hynes N. and Roche J.F. (1990). Resumption of follicular activity in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. J. Reprod. Fertil. 88, 569-579.
Schopper D., Schemer R. and Claus R. (1989). Analyse der fruchtbarkeltssituation von Miltchk Ühen postpartum in praxisbetrieben anhand von progesterone profilen. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 24, 67-78.
Spicer L.J. andEchternkamp S.E. (1995). The ovarian insulin and insulin-like growth factor system with an emphasis on domestic animals. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol. 12, 223-245.
Spicer L.J., Vernon R.K., Tucker W.B., Wettemann R.P., Hogue J.F. and Adams G.D. (1993). Effects of inert fat on energy balance plasma concentrations of hormones and reproduction in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 2664-2673.
Stevenson J.S. and Britt J.H. (1979). Relationships among LH, estradiol, progesterone, glucocorticoid, milk yield, body weight and postpartum ovarian activity in Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 48, 570-577.
Sugino N., Tellerı´a C.M. and Gibori G. (1997). Progesterone inhibits 20a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in the rat corpus luteum through the glucocorticoid receptor. Endocrinology. 138, 4497-4500.
Tetsuka M., Yamamoto S., Hayashida N., Hayashi K.G., Hayashi M., Acosta T.J. and Miyamoto A. (2003). Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in bovine follicle and corpus luteum. J. Endocrinol.177, 445-452.
Thom E.C. (1959). The discomfort index. Weath. Wise.12, 57-61.
Wolf R.C., Tente L. and Meyer R.K. (1967). Plasma cholesterol in pregnant Rhesus monkeys. Pp. 1230-1231 in Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.