1Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Karaj, Iran
Receive Date: 24 December 2011,
Revise Date: 15 February 2012,
Accept Date: 01 March 2012
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of infrared processing of barley for 60, 90, 120 and 150 seconds (s) on protein hydrophobicity, in vitro protein digestibility, degradation characteristics of protein and starch and its feeding effect on ruminal pH of sheep. The surface hydrophobicity of protein increased (P<0.04) as processing time increased. The degradation rate and effective rumen degradability of protein and starch decreased up to 90 s and remains constant at higher processing times (P<0.05). In vitro protein digestibility of barley increased at processing time of 60 and 90 s, remain constant at 120 s, then decreased at 150 s (P<0.05). Electrophoretic analysis showed aggregation of barley proteins that remain undegradable for longer time in the rumen. Ruminal pH of sheep fed processed barley was higher (P<0.05) than those fed untreated sample. There were no significant differences in ruminal pH of sheep fed barley processed at times over 90 s. It was concluded that infrared processing for 90 s, as shortest time, could decrease rate and extent of protein and starch degradation of barley in the rumen.
Afzal T.M., Abe T. and Hikida Y. (1999). Energy and quality aspects during combined FIR-convection drying of barley. J. Food Eng. 42, 177-182. AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Associa-tion of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA. Arntfield S.D., Scanlon M.G., Malcolmson L.J., Watts B., Ryland D. and Savoie V. (1997). Effect of tempering and end mois-ture content on the quality of micronized lentils. Food Res. Int. 30, 371-380. Calsamiglia S. and Stern M.D. (1995). A three-step in vitro proce-dure for estimating intestinal digestion of protein in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 1459-1465. Emami S., Meda V., Pickard M.D. and Tyler R.T. (2010). Impact of micronization on rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch concentrations in normal, high-amylose, and waxy barley. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58, 9793-97 Fasina O.O., Tyler R.T., Pickard M.D. and Zheng G.H. (1999). Infrared heating of hulless and pearled barley. J. Food Proc-ess. Preserv. 23, 135-151. Goelema J.O., Smits A., Vaessen L.M. and Wemmers A. (1999). Effect of pressure toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in vitro and in situ parameters of protein and starch in a mixture of broken peas, lupins and faba beans. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 78, 109-126. Hayakawa S. and Nakai S. (1985). Relationship of hydrophobicity and net charge to the solubility of milk and soy proteins. J. Food Sci. 50, 486-491. Igbasan F.A. and Guenter W. (1997). The influence of microniza-tion, dehulling, and enzyme supplementation on the nutritive value of peas for laying hens. Poult. Sci. 76, 331-337. Laemmli U.K. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227, 680-684. Mc Allister T.A. and Sultana H. (2011). Effects of micronization on in situ and in vitro digestion of cereal grains. Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24, 929-938. Mc Cleary B.V., Solah V. and Gibson T.S. (1994). Quantitative measurement of total starch in cereal flours and products. J. Cereal. Sci. 20, 51-58. Mc Niven M.A., Hamilton R.M.G., Robinson P.H. and De Leeuiwe J.W. (1994). Effect of flame roasting on the nutri-tional quality of common cereal grains for ruminants and non-ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 47, 31-40. Mc Niven M.A., Weisbjerg M.R. and Hvelplund T. (1995). Influence of roasting or sodium hydroxide treatment of barley on digestion in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 1106-1115. Murray R.K., Granner D.K., Mayes P.A. and Rodwell V.W. (2003). Harper’s Biochemistry. 26th Ed. Mc Graw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. Mustafa A.F., McKinnon J.J., Christensen D.A. and He T. (2002). Effects of micronization of flaxseed on nutrient disappearance in the gastrointestinal tract of steers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 95, 123-132. Mwangwela A.M., Waniska R.D., Mc Donough C. and Minnaar A. (2007). Cowpeas cooking characteristics as affected by mi-cronisation temperature: a study of the physicochemical and functional properties of starch. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 399-410. Ortega-Cerrilla M.E., Finlayson H.J. and Armstrong D.G. (1999). Protection of starch in barley against rumen degradation by glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde as assessed by the dacron bag technique. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 77, 83-90. Ørskov E.R. and Mc Donald I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 92, 499-503. Pan Z. and Atungulu G.G. (2010). Infrared Heating For Food And Agricultural Processing. 1th Ed. CRC Press, FL, USA. Pauly T., Spörndly R. and Udén P. (1992). Rumen degradability in sacco of physically and chemically treated oat and barley grain. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58, 465-473. Prestl Økken E. (1999). In situ ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of dry matter and protein in expanded feedstuffs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 77, 1-23. Ren G., Li D., Wang L., Özkan N. and Mao Z. (2010). Morpho-logical properties and thermoanalysis of micronized cassava starch. Carbohyd. Polym. 79, 101-105. Sadeghi A.A. and Shawrang P. (2008). Effects of microwave irra-diation on ruminal dry matter, protein and starch degradation characteristics of barley grain. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141, 184-194. Solanas E.M., Castrillo C., Jover M. and De Vega A. (2008). Ef-fect of extrusion on in situ ruminal protein degradability and in vitro digestibility of undegraded protein from different feed-stuffs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88, 2589-2597. Tothi R., Lund P., Weisbjerg M.R. and Hvelplund T. (2003). Ef-fect of expander processing on fractional rate of maize and barley starch degradation in the rumen of dairy cows estimated using rumen evacuation and in situ techniques. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 104, 71-94. Wang Y., Mc Allister T.A., Zo Bell D.R., Pickard M.D.M., Rode L. and Cheng K.J. (1997). The effect of micronization of full fat canola seed on digestion in the rumen and total tract of dairy cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77, 431-439. Wang Y., Mc Allister T.A., Pickard M.D., Xu Z., Rode L.M. and Cheng K.J. (1999). Effect of micronizing full fat canola seed on amino acid disappearance in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 537-544. Wu Y.V. (1986). Fractionation and characteristics of protein rich material from barley after alcohol distillation. Cereal. Chem. 63, 142-145. Zhang Z., Nyachoti C.M., Arntfield S., Guenter W. and Cenkowski S. (2003). Effect of micronization of peas and en-zyme supplementation on nutrient excretion and manure vol-ume in growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 83, 749-754. Zheng G.H., Fasina O., Sosulski F.W. and Tyler R.T. (1998). Nitrogen solubility of cereals and legumes subjected to mi-cronisation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 4150-4157.