Biochemical and Physiological Changes during Thermal Stress in Bovines: A Review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Agra Road, Jaipur, India

2 Department of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India


The variation in climatic variables like temperature, humidity and radiations were recognized as the potential hazards in the growth and production of all domestic livestock species. Thermal environment is a major factor that can negatively affect both production and reproduction in dairy animals, especially in animals of high genetic merit. Among the stressors, heat stress has been of major concern in reducing animal’s productivity in tropical, sub-tropical and arid areas. There are few effective strategies for reducing the effects of heat stress on animal’s health and performance. The major strategiesproviding elaborate housinginvolving shade, sprinklers, fans, air conditioner, etc. are capital intensive, not very efficient and are of limited use for small and medium-size dairies. Sweating, high respiration rate, vasodilation with increased blood flow to skin surface, elevated rectal temperature, reduced metabolic rate, decreased DM intake, efficiency of feed utilization and altered water metabolism are the physiological responses that are associated with negative impacts of heat stress on production and reproduction in dairy animals.This article aimed to review biochemical and physiological changes which occur during thermal stress in bovines.


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Volume 3, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2013
Pages 423-430
  • Receive Date: 05 September 2012
  • Revise Date: 28 November 2012
  • Accept Date: 31 December 2012
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2013