Influence of Inorganic and Organic Selenium Sources on Broiler Performance and Meat Quality

Document Type : Research/Original Article


1 Department of Botany, Root and Soil Biology Laboratory, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, Tamilnadu, India

2 Department of Animal Science, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University, Chennai, 600051, Tamilnadu, India


An experiment was carried out to evaluate and compare the effects of organic and inorganic selenium (Se) sources on broiler male birds (Ross 308). Uniform broiler male chicks divided in to five groups with six replicates were fed with either normal feed (without supplemental Se, negative control), 0.25 ppm of inorganic Se, 0.5 ppm of inorganic Se, 0.25 ppm of inorganic Se + 0.25 ppm of organic Se and 0.5 ppm of organic Se. Sodium selenite and Se enriched yeast served as inorganic and organic sources of Se respectively. The birds were reared for 35 days and were analyzed for growth performance, carcass yield, and lymphoid organ yield. The meat and liver samples were also analyzed for the glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), thio barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), meat pH and water holding capacity. Results showed that Se supplementation regardless of the source and levels improved the broiler performance by increasing the feed intake and body weight. No significant (P>0.05) difference in feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival and carcass yield was evident among the treatment groups. The organic Se at the rate of 0.5 ppm was found to be an excellent source of Se as it improved the meat quality through enhanced Se retention, higher glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity and decreased lipid peroxidation rate. Further, supplemental organic Se at the rate of 0.5 ppm also improved the meat water holding capacity.


AOAC. (2006). Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Arthur J.R. (1991). The role of selenium in thyroid hormone metabolism. Canadian J. Appl. Physiol. Pharmacol. 69,1648-1652.
Arthur J.R. and Beckett G.J. (1994). New metabolic roles for selenium. Proc.Nutr. Soc. 53, 615-624.
Cantor A.H., Scott M.L. and Noguchi T. (1975). Biological availability of selenium in feedstuffs and selenium compounds for prevention of exudative diathesis in chicks. J. Nutr. 105, 96-105.
Cantor A.H., Moorehead P.D. and Musser M.A. (1982). Comparative effects of sodium selenite and selenomethionine upon nutritional muscular dystrophy, selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase and tissue selenium concentrations of turkey poults. Poult. Sci. 61, 478-484.
Choct M., Naylor A.J. and Reinke N. (2004). Selenium supplementation affects broiler growth performance, meat yield and feather coverage. Br. Poult. Sci. 45, 677-683.
Combs G.F.J.R. (1981). Influence of dietary vitamin E and selenium on the oxidant defence system of the chick.Poult. Sci. 60, 2098-2105.
Deniz G.S., Genzen S. and Turkmen I.I. (2005). Effects of two supplemental dietary selenium sources (mineral and organic) on broiler performance and drip loss.Rev. Med. Vet. 156, 423-426.
De Vore V.R. and Greene B.E. (1982). Glutathione peroxidase in post- rigor bovine semitendinosus muscle. J. Food Sci. 47, 1406-1409.
Dlouha S., Sevcikova A., Dokoupilova Zita L., Heindl J. and Skri- van M. (2008). Effect of dietary selenium source on growth performance, breast muscle selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidative stability in broilers. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 53, 265-269.
Dou T.C., Shi S.R., Sun H.J. and Wang K.H. (2009). Growth rate, carcass traits and meat quality of slow growing chicken grown according to three raising systems. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 27, 361-369.
Downs K.M., Hess J.B. and Bilgili S.F. (2000). Selenium source effect on broiler carcass characteristics, meat quality and drip loss. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 18, 61-72.
Edens F.W. (1996). Organic selenium: from feathers to muscle integrity to drip loss. Five years onward: no more selenite. Pp. 165-185 in Proc. 12th Alltech Ann. Sympos. Biotech. Feed Indust. The Living Gut. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham NG 110 AX, United Kingdom.
Edens F.W., Parkhurst C.R., Havenstein G.B. and Sefton A.E. (2001). Housing and selenium influences on feathering on broilers. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 10, 128-134.
Flohe L. (2010). Changing paradigms in thiology from antioxidant defense toward redox regulation. Method. Enzymol. 473, 1-39.
Giamborne J.J. and Closser J. (1990). Efficacy of live vaccine against serologic subtypes of infectious bursal disease.Avian. Dis. 34, 7-11
Hassan S.J., Hakkarainen J., Lindberg P. and Sankari S. (1988). Comparative effect of dietary sodium selenite on whole blood and plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase in the chick. Nutr. Rep. Int. 38, 865-871.
Hegazy S.M. and Adachi Y. (2000). Effects of dietary selenium, zinc and selenium and zinc supplementation on growth and immune response between chicks groups that were inoculated with Salmonella and aflatoxin or Salmonella. Poult. Sci. 79, 331-335.
Henckel P., Young J.F., Bertram H.C. and Karlsson A.H. (2006). Determination of Water Holding Capacity in Chicken Meat, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Food Science, Tjele, Denmark.
Hussain M.I., Khan S.A., Chaudhry Z.I., Aslam A., Ashraf K. and Rai M.F. (2004). Effect of organic and inorganic selenium with and without vitamin E on immune system of broilers.Pakistan Vet. J. 24, 9-12.
Jokic Z., Pavlovski Z., Mitrovic S. and Dermanovic V. (2009). The effect of different levels of organic selenium on broiler slaughter traits. Biotechnol. Anim. Husbandry. 25, 23-24.
Maraschiello C., Sarraga C. and Garcia Regueiro A. (1999). Glutathione peroxidase activity, TBARS and α-tocopherol in meat from chickens fed different diets. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 867-872.
Miller D., Soares H.J., Bauersfeld. P. and Cuppett S.L. (1972). Comparative selenium retention by chicks fed sodium selenite, selenomethionine, fish meal, and fish soluble. Poult. Sci. 51, 1669-1673.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Naylor A.J., Choct M. and Jacques K.A. (2000). Effects of selenium source and level on performance and meat quality in male broilers. Poult. Sci. 79, 117-124.
Okhawa H., Oshishi N. and Yagi K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxidation in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351-358.
Payne R.L. and Southern L.L. (2005). Comparison of inorganic and organic selenium sources for broilers. Poult. Sci. 84, 898-902.
Rajashree K. and Muthukumar T. (2013a). Preparation of selenium tolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Res. 3, 46-53.
Rajashree K. and Muthukumar T. (2013b). Selection of culture medium and conditions for the production of selenium enrichedSaccharomyces cerevisiae. African J. Biotechnol. 12, 2972-2977.
Rotruck J.T., Pope A.L., Ganther H.E., Swanson A.B., Hafeman D.C. and Hoekstra W.G. (1973). Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase.Science. 179, 588-590.
Biotechnology in the Feed Indust. The Living Gut. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham NG 110 AX, United Kingdom.
Shan A.S. and Davis R.H. (1994). Effect of dietary phytate on growth and selenium status of chicks fed selenite or selenomethionine. Br. Poult. Sci. 35, 725-741.
Sharmila S. and Vasundra Devi P.A. (2011). Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of ripe and unripe fruit of Aegle marmelos. J. Pharm. Res. 4, 720-722.
Singh K.S. and Panda B. (1992). Poultry Nutrition. Kalyam Publishers, Rajinder nagar, Ludhiyana, India.
Spears J.W., Grimes J., Lloyd K. and Ward T.L. (2003). Efficacy of a novel organic selenium compound (zinc-lselenomethionine, Availa Se) in broiler chicks. Pp. 197-198 in Proc. 1st Latin American Cong. Anim. Nutr. Cancum, Mexico.
Upton R.J., Frank W. Edens and Ferket P.R. (2008). Selenium yeast effect on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7, 798-805.
Yoon I., Werner M. and Butler M. (2007). Effect of source and concentration of selenium on growth performance and selenium retention in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86, 727-730.
Zhan X.A., Wang M., Zhao R.Q., LI W.F. and XU Z.R. (2007). Effects of different selenium source on selenium distribution, loin quality and antioxidant status in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 132, 202-211.
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
March 2014
Pages 151-157
  • Receive Date: 25 September 2013
  • Revise Date: 02 November 2013
  • Accept Date: 16 November 2013
  • First Publish Date: 01 March 2014