Effect of Antibiotic Alternatives on Ileal Microflora and Intestinal Histomorphology of Broiler Chickens Fed Wheat Based Diet

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


An experiment was conducted to study the effects of enzyme and phytogenic product (thymol+carvacrol) on the ileal microbial population and jejuna and ileal histomorphology of broilers fed wheat based diet. The experiment was conducted as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of enzyme endofeed W (0 and 0.05%) and 3 levels of next enhance 150® (0, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Each of the 6 dietary treatments was fed to 5 replicate pens (12 birds/pen) from 0 to 24 d of age. Adding enzyme and phytogenic product into wheat based diet increased (P<0.05) Lactobacillus and decreased (P<0.05) E. coli population while it had no effect on Bifidobacterium when compared to the control group. For jejunal histomorphology at d 24, addition of enzyme into wheat based diet increased (P<0.05) villus height (VH), villus surface (VS), crypt depth (CD), mucosa layer thickness (MCL) and goblet cell (GC) although villus width (VW) decreased (P<0.05) when compared to the control group. Pytogenic product supplementation significantly increased VH, VS, villus height to crypt depth (VH:CD) and GC but it was not significant for CD, MCL and mascular layer (MSL). Results of jejunal measurement showed that enzyme supplementation increased (P<0.05) VH, CD, MCL and GC although decreased (P<0.05) VW in contrast with control group: enzyme increased ileal VH, VS and GC at 24 days of age, but VW, CD, MCL and MSL was not affected by that. Effect of thymol + carvacrol on ileal morphology at d 24 followed the similar pattern of enzyme addition. At d 42, ileal measurement showed that enzyme supplement significantly enhanced VH and CD and thymol + carvacrol increased VH and VS. Thus, the addition of enzyme and phytogenic product can modify microbial status of intestinal by increasing beneficial microbial population, decreasing pathogens and improve mucosa structure of jejunum and ileum by increasing villus height, villus surface area and goblet cell.


Adeola O. and Bedford M.R. (2004). Exogenous dietary xylanase ameliorates viscosity-induced anti-nutritional effects in wheat-based diets for White Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). Br. J. Nutr. 92, 87-94.
Aktug S.E. and Karapinar M. (1986). Sensitivity of some common food poisoning bacteria to thyme, mint and bay leaves. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 3, 349-354.
Annison G. (1991). Relationship between the levels of nonstarch polysaccharides and the apparent metabolizable energy of wheat assayed in broiler chickens. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 1252-1256.
Aptekmann K.P., Baraldi Arton S.M., Stefanini M.A. and Orsi M.A. (2001). Morphometric analysis of the intestine of domestic quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) treated with different levels of dietary calcium. Anat. Histol. Embryol. 30, 277-280.
Aviagen. (2007). Ross 308: Broiler Nutrition Specification. Aviagen Inc., Huntsville, AL.
Bancroft J.D. and Gamble M.N. (2002). Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Basmacioglu H., Baysal S., Misirlioglu Z., Polat M., Yilmaz H. and Turan N. (2010). Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism, and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 51, 67-80.
Bedford M.R. (2000). Removal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry diets: implications and strategies to minimize subsequent problems. World's Poult. Sci. J. 56, 347-365.
Bowles B.L. and Miller A.J. (1993). Antibouulinal properties of selected aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. J. Food Prod. 56, 788-794.
Brenes A., Smith M., Guenter W. and Marqurdt R.R. (1993). Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance and digestive tract size of broiler chickens fed wheat and barley based diets. Poult. Sci. 72, 1731-1739.
Campbell G.L. and Bedford M.R. (1992). Enzyme applications for monogastric feeds: a review. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 72, 449-466.
Chang S.T., Chen P.F. and Chang S.C. (2001). Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomun osmophloeum. J. Ethnopharmacol. 77, 123-127.
Charai M., Mosaddak M. and Faid M. (1996). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of two aromatic plants:Origanum majorana and O. compactum Benth. J. Essen. Oil Res. 8, 657-664.
Choct M., Huges R.J., Trimble R.P., Angkanapom K. and Annison G. (1995). Non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes increase the performance of broiler chickens fed wheat and low apparent metabolisable energy. J. Nutr. 125, 485-492.
Cornner D.E. (1993). Naturally occurring compounds. Pp. 441-468 in Antimicrobials in Foods. P.M. Davidson and A. Larry Branen, Eds. New York, USA.
Crouch A.N., Grimes J.L., Ferket P.R., Thomas L.N. and Sefton A.E. (1997). Enzyme supplementation to enhance wheat utilization in starter diets for broilers and turkeys. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 6, 147-154.
Dorman H.J.D. and Deans S.G. (2000). Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88, 308-316.
Farag R.S., Daw Z.Y. and Abo-Raya S.H. (1989). Influence of some spice essential oils on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and production of Aflatoxins in a synthetic medium. J. Food Sci. 54, 74-76.
Guban J., Korver D.R., Allison G.E. and Tannock G.W. (2006). Relationship of dietary antimicrobial drug administration with broiler performance, decreased population levels of Lactobacillus salivarius, and reduced bile salt deconjugation in the ileum of broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 85, 2186-2194.
Hampson D.J. (1986). Alterations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40, 32-40.
Helander I.M., Alakomi H.L., Latva-Kala K., Mattila-Sandholm T., Pol I., Smid E.J., Gorris L.G.M. and Von-Wright A. (1998). Characterization of the action of selected essential oil components on gram-negative bacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3590-3595.
Ibrahim S.A., and Salameh M.M. (2001). Simple and rapid method for screening antimicrobial activities of Bifidobacterium species of human isolates. J. Rapid Method Auto. Microbiol. 9, 52-63.
Jamroz D., Orda J., Kamel C., Wiliczkiewicz A., Wertelecki T. and Skorupinska J. (2003). The influence of phytogenic extracts on performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and gut microbial status in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 12, 583-596.
Jaroni D., Scheideler S.E., Beck M.M. and Wyatt C. (1999). The effect of dietary wheat middlings and enzyme supplementation II: apparent nutrient digestability, digestive tract size, gut viscosity and gut morphology in two strains of leghorn hens. Poult. Sci. 78, 1664-1674.
Langhout D.J., Schutte J.B., Van Leeuwen P., Wiebenga J. and Tamminga S. (1999). Effect of high and low methylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. Br. Poult. Sci. 40, 340-347.
Lee K.W., Everts H., Kappert H.J., Wouterse H., Frehner M. and Beynen A.C. (2004). Cinnamanaldehyde, but not thymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose-induced growth depression in female broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3, 608-612.
Losa R. and Kohler B. (2001) Prevention of colonisation of Clostridium perfringens in broiler intestine by essential oils. Pp. 133-134 in Proc. 13th Europ. Symp. Poult. Nutr. Blankenberge, Belgium.
MarinoM., Bersani C. and Comi G. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris measured using a bioimpedometric method. J. Food Prot. 62, 1017-1023.
Markovic R., Sefer D., Krstic M. and Petrujkic B. (2009). Effect of different growth promoters on broiler performance and gut morphology. Arch. Med. Vet. 41, 163-169.
Mazhari M., Golian A., Kermanshahi H. and Heravi Mousavi A.R. (2011). The replacement of corn with wheat screening in very young broiler chicks. Glob. Vet. 6, 304-312.
Mcintosh F.M., Williams P., Losa R., Wallace R.J., Beever D.A. and Newbold C.J. (2003). Effects of essential oils on ruminal micro-organisms and their protein metabolism. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 5011-5014.
Meng X., Slominski B.A., Ngachati C.M., Campbell L.D. and Guenter W. (2005). Degradation of cell wall polysaccharide by combinations of carbohydrate enzymes and their effect on nutrient utilization and broiler chicken performance. Poult. Sci. 84, 37-43.
Mitsch P., Zitter Eglseer K., Kohler B., Gabler C., Losa R. and Zimpernik I. (2004). The effect of two different blends of essential oil components on the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the intestines of broiler chicken. Poult. Sci. 83, 669-675.
Montes Belmont R. and Carvajal M. (1998). Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components. J. Food Prot. 61, 616-619.
Parsaie S.J., Shariatmadari F., Zamiri M.J. and Khajeh K. (2007). Influence of wheat based diets supplemented with xylanase, bile acid and antibiotics on performance, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology of broilers compared with a maizebased diet. Br. Poult. Sci. 48, 594-600.
Preston C.M., Mccracken K.J. and Bedford M.R. (2001). Effect of wheat content, fat source and enzyme supplementation on diet metabolisability and broiler performance. Br. Poult. Sci. 42, 625-632.
SAS Institute. (2001). SAS User's Guide. Release 8.2. Ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, Nc.
Savage T.F., Zakrzewska E.I. and Andersen J.R. (1997). The effects of feeding mannan oligosaccharide supplemented diets to poults on performance and morphology of the small intestine. Poult. Sci. 76, 139-143.
Sharifi S.D., Shariatmadari F. and Yaghobfar A. (2003). Effects of different levels of soluble NSPs in practical diets on broiler performance. Pp. 363-364 in Proc. 14th Euro. Symp. Poult. Nutr., Norway, Lillehammer.
Steenfeldt S. (2001). The dietary effect of different wheat cultivars for broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 42, 595-609.
Taback M., Armon R. and Neeman I. (1999). Cinnamon extracts inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori. J. Ethnophamacol. 67, 269-277.
Tucker L.A. (2002). Maintaining poultry performance in antibiotic free diets by supplementation with commercial botanical feed ingredients. Pp. 227-230 in Proc. 7th WPSA Asian Pacific Feder. Conf., Gold Coast, Australia.
Veldman A. and Vahl H.A. (1994). Xylanase in broiler diets with differences in characteristics and contents of wheat. Br. Poult. Sci. 35, 537-550.
Visek W.J. (1978). A nutritional evaluation of triticale in broiler diets. J. Anim. Sci. 46, 1447-1469.