Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Receive Date: 17 June 2013,
Revise Date: 07 August 2013,
Accept Date: 15 August 2013
This study was carried out to determine the effect of different levels of clove essential oil, as a natural growth promoter and probiotic on performance,carcass traits and serum components of broiler chickens. A total of 240 straight run day-old commercial broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were distributed randomly into five groups. Each group was subdivided into four replicates with 12 chicks each. The control diet, diet with probiotic protexin®, and diets supplemented with 150, 300 and 450 ppm clove essential oil were fed to the chickens. The results showed that from 11-22 days, feed intake (FI), and body weight gain (BWG) were increased significantly in control group compared to the other groups. However, from 23-42 d and 0-42 days of the experiment, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were increased significantly in broilers fed 450 ppm clove essential oil compare to those of control group (P<0.05). Also, clove essential oil at the level of 450 ppm increased feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in finisher period (P<0.05). Results show that different levels of clove essential oil and probiotic had not any significant effect on dressing percentage, abdominal fat and internal organs percentage (liver, heart and gizzard) (P>0.05). The results revealed significant decrease in total cholesterol concentration in diets supplemented with probiotic and 450 ppm clove essential oil at 21 day of age (P<0.05). Total cholesterol concentration, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and cholesterol / high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio at 42 day of age were significantly improved in probiotic protexin® group compare to those of other groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 450 ppm clove essential oil improved feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and decreased total cholesterol concentration (P<0.05). Probiotic could decrease serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol / high density lipoprotein (HDL) and improve HDL / LDL at day 42 broiler chickens (P<0.05).
Azadegan Mehr M., Shams Shargh M., Dastar B., Hassani S. and Akbari M.R. (2007). Effect of different levels of protein and protexin on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 6, 573-577. Bostoglou N.A., Christaki E., Florou-paneri P., Giannenas I., Papageorgiou G. and Spais A.B. (2004). The effect of a mixture of herbal essential oils or α-tocopheryl acetate on performance parameters and oxidation of body lipid in broilers. South African J. Anim. Sci. 34, 52-61. Botsoglou N.A., Florou-Paner P., Christaki E. and Fletouris D.J.S. (2002). Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues.Br. Poult. Sci.43, 223-230. Cabuk M., Alcicek A., M.B. and Imre N. (2003). Antimicrobial properties of the essential oils isolated from aromatic plants and using possibility as alternative feed additives. Pp. 184-187 in Proc. 2ndNatal. Anim. Nutr. Cong.Konya, Turkey. Clegg R.J. and Mbada W. (1980). Inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coA reductase. Biochemical. Pharmacol.29, 2125-2127. Dragland S., Senoo H., Wake K., Holte K. and Blomhoff R. (2003). Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J. Nutr.133, 1286-1290. Fukashima M. and Nakano M. (1995). The effect of probiotic on faecal and liver lipid classes in rats. Br. J. Nutr.73, 701-710. Fuller R. (2001). The chicken gut microflora and probiotic supplements.J. Poult. Sci.38, 189-196. Gianneanas I., Florou Paneri P., Papazahariadou M., Cheristaki E., Bostoglou N.A. and Spais A.B. (2003). Effect of dietary supplementation with oregano essential oil on performance of broilers after experimental infection with Eimeria tenel.Br. Poult. Sci. 57, 99-106. Guler T., Ertas O.N., Ciftci M. and Dalkilic B. (2005) The effect of Coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum) as diet ingredient on the performance of Japanese quail.South African J. Anim. Sci. 35, 261-267. Hernandez F.J., Madrid V., Garcia J. Orengo A. and Megias M.D. (2004). Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility and digestive organ size. Poult. Sci.83, 169-174. Homma H. and Shinohara T. (2004). Effect of probiotic Bacillus cereus toyoi on abdominal fat accumulation in the Japanese quail. J. Anim. Sci.75, 37-42. Janatan I.B., Yassin M.S.M., Chin C.B., Chen L.L. and Sim N.L. (2003). Antifungal activity of the essential oils nine zingiberaceae species. Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 392-397. Joy A.D. and Samuel J.J. (1997). Effect of probiotic supplementation on the performance of broilers.J. Vet. Anim. Sci.28, 10-14. Kabir S., Rahman M.M., Rahman M.B. and Ahmad S.U. (2004). The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broiler. J. Poult. Sci.3, 61-64. Kalavathy R., Abdullah N. and Jalaludin S. (2003). Effect of lactobacillus cultures on growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipid and weight of organs of broiler chickens.Br. Poult. Sci. 44, 139-144. Kamel C. (2001). Tracing modes of action and the roles of plant extracts in non-ruminants. Pp. 135-150 in Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. P.C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman, Eds. Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham, UK. Klaver F.A.M. and Vander Meer R. (1993). The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt deconjugating activity.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 1120-1124. Lee K.W., Everts H., Kappert H.J., Wouterse H., Frehner A. and Beynen C. (2004). Cinnamanaldehyde, but not thymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose induced growth depression in female broiler chickens. J. Poult. Sci.3, 608-612. Midilli M. and Tuncer S.D. (2001). The effect of enzyme and probiotic supplementation to diets on broiler performance.J. Anim. Sci.12, 895-903. Mohan B., Kadirvel R., Bhaskaran M. and Natarajan A. (1995). Effect of probiotic supplementation on serum / yolk cholesterol and on egg shell thickness in layers.Br. Poult. Sci. 36, 779-803. Mohan K.O.R. and Anjames C.K. (1988). The role of Lactobacilllussporogens (probiotic) as feed additives.J. Poult. Sci.25, 37-39. Mountzouris K.C., Tsirtsikos P., Palamidi I., Arvaniti A., Mohnl M., Schatzmayr G. and Fegeros K. (2010). Effects of probiotic inclusion levels in broiler nutrition on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma immunoglobulins and caecal microflora composition.Poult. Sci.89, 58-67. MukhtarAhmed M. (2011). The effect of dietary clove oil on broiler performance. Asian-australas J. Basic Appl. Sci.5(7), 49-51. Rahimi S. and Khaksefidi A. (2006). A comparison between the effects of a probiotic (Bioplus 2B) and an antiobiotic (Virginiamycin) on the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress condition.Iran J. Vet. Res.7(3), 23-38. Santos U., Tanaka K. and Ohtani S. (1995). Effect of dried Bacillus subtilis culture on growth, body composition and hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity in female broiler chicks. Br. J. Nutr.74, 523-529. Sarono S. (1995). In vitro probotic preparation of indigenous dadih lactic acid bacteria.Asian-ustralas J. Anim. Sci.16, 726-731. SAS Institute. (2004). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. Vahdatpour T., Nikpiran H., Babazadeh D., Vahdatpour S. and Jafargholipour M.A. (2011). ffects of Protexin®, Fermacto® and combination of them on blood enzymes and performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Annal. Biol. Res.2, 283-291. Weber G.M., Michalczuk M., Huyghebaert G., Juin H., Kwakernaak C. and Gracia M.I. (2012). Effects of a blend of essential oil compounds and benzoic acid on performance of broiler chickens as revealed by a meta-analysis of 4 growth trials in various locations. Poult. Sci.91, 2820-2828. Zhang W., Li D., Lu W. and Yi G. (2003). Effect of isomalto oligosaccharides on broiler performance and intestinal microflora.Poult. Sci.82, 657-663.