1Andassa Livestock Research Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
2Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
4Department of Animal Environment and Health, University of Agricultural Science, Sweden
Receive Date: 05 July 2013,
Revise Date: 01 October 2013,
Accept Date: 15 October 2013
This study was initiated to characterize urban and peri-urban sheep production systems and their economic importance in and around the towns of Debre Berhan and Dessie, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken using group discussions, structured questionnaire and personal observations. In both locations the majority of sheep producers were male household heads and predominantly traders in urban and farmers in peri-urban areas. The average family size was more in Debre Berhan peri-urban (5.4) area thanDessie peri-urban (4.8). In Debre Berhan peri-urban areas, 39.3% had a land hold size between 1 and 2 ha and in Dessie peri-urban areas 48.4% respondents had a land hold size of < 0.5 ha. The number of sheep and other livestock population was higher in Debre Berhan peri-urban than Dessie peri-urban area. Except brewery dried grain all other types of feed used for sheep production were similar but the availability was different among the study areas. In both urban and peri-urban areas major available feed types were natural pasture grazing, hay, crop residues, wheat bran and oil seed cakes, by-products from local breweries and legume grains processing. Sheep rearing constitutes the first source of income in Dessie area and the second source of income in Debre Berhan area. Urban and peri-urban sheep production has economic advantages as sources of income and food to the household. High feed cost, lack of improved breed, capital and labor shortages were major constraints. Conducive weather conditions, attractive market price, and availabilities of supplementary feed found in urban areas were considered as beneficial for sheep production. Although, there are constraints for sheep production, available opportunities are to encourage engaging in sheep production. Scientifically proven and efficient feeding packages from locally common available feed resources are required.
Abebe M., Alemu Y. and Hegde P.B. (2002). Growth performance and mortality of Menz sheep in the traditional sector of Lallo, Mama Mider Woreda, North Shoa. Pp. 25-26 in Proc. Pastoral and Agro pastoralism which way forward? 8th Ann. Conf., Ethiopian Soc. Anim. Prod., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Baah J., Tuah A.K., Addah W. and Tait R.M. (2012). Small ruminant production characteristics in urban households in Ghana. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 24, 51-57. BarbaraR., Katrin B. and Gundula J. (2006). Peri-urban sheep production in West Africa: do smallholders benefit from proximity of the urban centers? Small Rumin. Res. 66, 22-31. Biffa D., Jobre Y. and Chakka H. (2006). Ovine helminthosis, a major health constraint to productivity of sheep in Ethiopia. J. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 7, 107-118. CSA. (2010). Central Statistical Agency.Agricultural Sample Survey Volume II, Report on Livestock and Livestock Characteristics, (Private Peasant Holdings). Statistical Bulletin 468, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Ermias S. (2007). Assessment of the physicochemical parameters of river beressa in Debre Berhan town (North Shoa) for suitability of drinking water. MS Thesis. Addis Ababa Univ., Ethiopia. FAO. (2004). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Livestock sector brief: Ethiopia, livestock information, sector analysis and policy branch (AGAL), FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO. (2007). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Profitability and sustainability of urban and peri-urban agriculture. agricultural management, marketing and Finance Occasional Paper 19. Rome, Italy. FAO. (2009). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The state of food and agriculture: livestock in the balance. FAO, Rome, Italy. FAO. (2011a). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The place of urban and peri-urban agriculture in national food security programmes. Rome, Italy. FAO.(2011b). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. World livestock food security, FAO, Rome, Italy. Firaw T. and Getnet A. (2010). Feed Resource Assessment in Amhara National Regional State. Ethiopia, Sanitary and Phytosanitary standards and livestock and meat marketing program (SPS-LMM) report. Gebru T. (2009). The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa, New Haven, Yale University. Getachew T., Haile A., Tibbo M., Sharma A.K., Sölkner J. and Wurzinger M. (2010). Herd management and breeding practices of sheep owners in a mixed crop-livestock and a pastoral system of Ethiopia. African J. Agric. Res. 5, 685-691. Hassen A., Ebro A., Kurtu M. and Treydte A.C. (2010).Livestock feed resources utilization and management as influenced by altitude in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 22, 125-132. Kassahun A. (2000). Comparative performance evaluation of Horro and Menz sheep of Ethiopia under grazing and intensive feeding conditions, Ph D. Thesis. Humboldt Univ., Germany. MoARD. (2007). Livestock Development Master Plan Study. Phase I Report - Data Collection and Analysis, Volume N - Apiculture. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. MOFED. ( 2010). Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. Sustainable development and poverty reduction program, Addis Ababa. MuhammadI.R. (2008).Livestock ownership and unconventional feed resources from refuse dumps in urban metropolis of semi arid zone. Res. J. Anim. Sci. 2, 12-16. Okanlade A. and Cornelius J. (2011). Challenges of small ruminants production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.Agric. Conspec. Sci. 76,129-134. Sabine G. and Wyn R. (2002). Peri-urban and urban livestock keeping in East Africa-A coping strategy for the poor? Technological and Institutional Innovationsfor Sustainable Rural Development. Shenkute B., Legasse G., Tegegne A. and Hassen A. (2010).Small ruminant production in coffee-based mixed crop-livestock system of Western Ethiopian Highlands: status and prospectus for improvement.Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 22, 23-29. Solomon G., Hans K., Jack J., Olivier H., Johan A.M. and Van A. (2008). Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Gen. Select. Evol. 40, 433-447. Solomon G., Azage T., Berhanu G. and Dirk H. (2010). Sheep and goat production and marketing systems in Ethiopia: characteristics and strategies for improvement. IPMS (Improving Productivity and Market Success) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 23. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. SPSS. (2011). Statistical Package for Social Sciences Study. SPSS for Windows, Version 20. Chicago SPSS Inc. Tibboa M. and Bakerb R.L. (2000). Between and within breed variation in lamb survival and the risk factors associated with major causes of mortality in indigenous Horro and Menz sheep in Ethiopia. Small Rumin. Res. 37, 1-12. Zelealem T., Anal A.K. and Gebrezgiher G. (2012). Assessment of the sheep production system of Northern Ethiopia in relation to sustainable productivity and sheep meat quality. Int. J. Adv. Biol. Res. 2, 302-313.