Inbreeding and Its Effects on Body Weight,Kleiber Ratio, Body Measurements, Greasy Fleece Weight and Reproductive Traits of Makooei Sheep Breed

Document Type: Research Article

Author

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, Urmia, IranAgriculture Jihad Organization of West Azerbaijan, Makooei Sheep Breeding Station, Makoo, Iran

Abstract

A pedigree file consisting of 5860 individuals, 167 sires and 1582 dams collected at Makooei sheep breeding station (MSBS) during a period of 24 years (1990 to 2013) was used to calculate the inbreeding coefficients to reveal any probable effects of inbreeding (F) on the studied traits. The studied traits were classified to the five main groups including body weight, Kleiber ratio, body measurements, greasy fleece weight and reproductive traits. The inbreeding coefficient among the individuals ranged from 0 to 25% with an average of 0.33%, and ranged from 0 to 25% among the ewes with an average of 0.21%. Fluctuations in individual and maternal inbreeding were observed in the period under study. The average generation interval was calculated as 3.6 years. The effective population size of the flock was 51.8 animals. The rate of inbreeding was 0.08% per year and 0.53% per generation. Six different models were applied and likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used to select the appropriate model. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as appropriate model for growth, greasy fleece weight at 6 months of age and kleiber ratio traits. The traits related to the live body weight were affected negatively (P<0.001) by the quadratic individual F. The linear individual regression coefficient of the Kleiber ratio was estimated significantly (P<0.01) as 0.001, as well the linear maternal inbreeding regression was estimated significantly (P<0.05) as 0.0002. In general, body measurements were affected negatively by the quadratic effects of inbreeding (both individual and maternal) and positively by the linear effects of inbreeding. The reproductive traits were studied based on ewe inbreeding coefficient. Among the reproductive traits, the quadratic regression coefficient of conception rate was estimated significantly (P<0.05) as -0.22. Quadratic regression coefficient of litter mean weight per lamb born were estimated significantly (P<0.01) as -0.63 per 0.01 change in the ewe inbreeding coefficient. Therefore, inbreeding should be avoided, except for purposes of genetic breeding whose main objective is the fixation of certain alleles in the population.

Keywords


Abbasi M.A. and Ghafouri-Kesbi F. (2011). Genetic co (variance) components for body weight and body measurements in Makooei sheep. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 24, 739- 743.
Akhtar P., Khan M. S., Mohiuddin G. and Abdollah M. (2000). Effect of inbreeding on different performance traits of Hissardale sheep in Pakistan. Pakistan Vet. J. 20(4), 169-172.
Boujenane I. and Chami A. (1997). Effects of inbreeding on reproduction, weights and survival of Sardi and BeniGuil sheep. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 114, 23-31.
Caballero A. and Toro M.A. (2000). Interrelations between effective population size and other pedigree tools for the management ofconserved populations. Genet. Res. 75, 331-343.
Crow J.F. and Kimura M. (1970). An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory. Harper and Row, New York, USA.
Dorostkar M., Faraji-Arough H., Shodja J., Rafat S.A., Rokouei M. and Esfandyari H. (2012). Inbreeding and Inbreeding Depression in Iranian Moghani Sheep Breed. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 14, 549-556.
Ercanbrack S.K. and Knight A.D. (1991). Effects of inbreeding on reproduction and wool production of Rambouillet, Targhee, and Columbia ewes. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 4734-4744.
Falconer D.S. and Mackay T.F.C. (1996). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, Fourth Edition, London, Longman, UK.
Farkas J., CurikI., Csato L., CsornyeiZ., BaumungR. and Nagy I. (2007). Bayesian inference of inbreeding effects on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs. Livest. Sci. 112(1), 109-114.
Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh N. (2013). Inbreeding effects on average daily gains and kleiber ratios in Iranian Moghani sheep. Iranian J. Appl. Anim. Sci. 3(3), 545-551.
Gomez M.D., Valera M., Molina A., Gutierrez J. P. and Goyache F. (2009). Assessment of inbreeding depression for body measurements in Spanish Purebred (Andalusian) horses. Livest. Sci. 122, 149-155.
Hussain A., Akhtar P., Ali S., Younas M. and Shafiq M. (2006). Effect of inbreeding on pre-weaning growth traits in Thalli sheep. Pakistan Vet. J. 26(3), 138-140.
Jafari S. (2014). Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their association with yearling live weight in Makuie sheep breed. World. Appl. Sci. J. 29(2), 188-192.
Kleiber M. (1947). Body size and metabolic rate. Physiological. Rev. 27, 511-541.
Leroy G., Mary-Huard T., Verrier E., Danvy S., Charvolin E. and Danchin-Burge C. (2013). Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse. Genet. Sel. Evol. 45(1), 1-10.
Lush J.L. (1945). Animal Breeding Plans, third ed. Ames, Iowa State College.
Lucy I.W., Tregenza T. and Hosken D.J. (2007). Inbreeding, inbreeding depression and extinction. Conserv. Genet. 10, 1-10.
Lynch M. and Walsh B. (1998). Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer Associates. Inc. 86, 127-135.
Mandal A., Pant K.P., Notter D.R., Rout P.K., Roy R., Sinha N. K. and Sharma N. (2005). Studies on inbreeding and its effects on growth and fleece traits of Muzaffarnagari Sheep. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 10, 1363-1367.
Marete A.G., Junga J.O. and Mosi R.O. (2011). An analysis of inbreeding levels and factorsaffecting growth and reproductive traits inthe Kenya Alpine dairy goat. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 23(12), 1-8.
Maximini L., Manrique-Gomez A. and Fuerst-Waltl B. (2011). Inbreeding and its effect on performance traits in Austrian Meat Sheep. Am. Chem. Soc. 76(3), 213-217.
Meyer K. (1989). Restricted maximum likelihood to estimate variance components for animal models with several random effects using a derivative-free algorithm. Genet. Sel. Evol. 21, 317-340.
Meyer K. (1992). Variance components due to direct and maternal effects for growth traits of Australian beef cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 31, 179-204.
Miglior F. (2000). Impact of inbreeding-Managing a declining Holstein gene pool. Pp. 108- 113 in Proc. 10th Holstein world festival Federation. Conf., Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Norberg E. and Sorensen A.C. (2007). Inbreeding trend and inbreeding depression in the Danish populations of Texel, Shropshire and Oxford Down. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 299-304.
Paddaiah G. and Madhavi D. (2001). The effect of parental consanguinity and inbreeding on the anthropometric measurements of the new born babies revisited. Int. J. Health Geogr. 1(3), 187-190.
Petrovic V.C., Maksimovic N., Petrovic M.P., Petrovic M.M., Ilic Z.Z., Muslic D.R. and Mikulec D.P. (2012). Effect of inbreeding on body growth traits and sperm DNA fragmentation level in rams. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 31(1), 27-33.
Queiroz S.A., Albuquerque L.G. and Lanzoni L.A. (2000). Inbreeding effects on growth traits of Gyr cattle in Brazil. Brazilian J. Anim. Sci. 4, 1014-1019.
Rollins W.C., LabenR.C. and Mead S.W. (1956). Gestation length in an inbred jersey herd. J. Dairy Sci. 39(11), 1578-1593.
Safari E., Fogarty N.M. andGilmor A.R. (2005). A review of genetic parameter estimates for wool, growth, meat and reproduction traits in sheep. Livest. Prod. Sci. 92, 271- 289.
Sajjad-Khan M., Afzal A., Hydar A.U. and Iqbal-Chata A. (2007). Effect of inbreeding on growth and reproduction traits of Beetal goats. Arch. Tierz. Dummerstorf. 50(2), 197-203.
Salako A.E. (2006). Application of morphological indices in the assessment of type and function in sheep. Int. J. Morphol. 24(1), 13-18.
Santana-JR M.L., Oliveira P.S., Pedrosa V.B., Eler J.P., Groeneveld E. and Ferraz J.B.S. (2010). Effect of inbreeding on growth and reproductive traits of Nellore cattle in Brazil. Livest. Sci. 131, 212-217.
SAS Institute. (2005). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Swanepoel J.W., Van Wyk J.B., Cloete S.W.P. and Delport G.J. (2007). Inbreeding in the dohne merino breed in South Africa. South African J. Anim. Sci. 37, 176-179.
Van Wyk J.B., Fair M.D. and Cloete S.W.P. (2009). Case study: the effect of inbreeding on the production and reproduction traits in the elsenburg dormer sheep stud. Livest. Sci. 120(3), 218-224.
Van Wyk J.B., Erasmus G.J. and Konstantinov K.V. (1993). Inbreeding in the Elsenburg Dormer sheep stud. South African J. Anim. Sci. 23(3), 77-80.