Effect of (Pleurotus florida) Fungi on Chemical Composition and Rumen Degradability of Wheat and Barley Straw

Document Type : Research/Original Article


Department of Ruminant and Poultry Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of biological treatment withPleurotus floridafungi on chemical composition and rumen dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradability of wheat and barley straw. Wheat and barley straw were collected from Golestan province of Iran and after pasteurization mixed with fungi spawn (than 5% by weight). After 21 days samples were dried in oven (60 ˚C) in order to stop fungi growth. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) degradation determined using nylon bag technique with two fistulated Dalagh rams and sampleswereincubated at zero to 96 hours in rumen. Fungi cultivation significantly decreased the amount of dry matter (DM), Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in wheat and barley straw (P<0.01). Ash and crude protein (CP) content significantly increased with processing by fungi in treatments (P<0.01). Ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) content did not differ by processing with fungi. The soluble fraction (a) and potential degradability (a+b) of dry matter (DM) increased (P<0.05) by processing with fungi in both straw. Theinsoluble but potentially degradable fraction (b) of dry matter (DM) degradability increased (P<0.05) by processing with fungi in wheat straw, but did not change in Barley straw. The a and a + b fractions of organic matter (OM) degradability increased (P<0.01) by processing in both straw. The b fraction of organic matter (OM) degradability increased (P<0.01) by processing with fungi in wheat straw, but did not observed difference in Barley straw. Therefore, it has been concluded that the treating the wheat and barley straw with fungi improved the nutritive value in the present study.


Agosin E., Tollier M.T., Brillouet J.M., Thivend P. and Odier E. (1986). Fungal pre-treatment of wheat straw: effects on the biodegradability of cell walls, structural polysaccharides and lignin and phenolic acids by rumen microorganisms. J. Sci. Food Agric. 37, 97-109.
Akinfemi A., Adu O.A. and Doherty F. (2009). Conversion of sorghum stover into animal feed with white-rot fungi: Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus pulmonarius. African J. Biotechnol. 9(11), 1706-1712.
AOAC (2002). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Ardon O., Kermen Z. and Hadar Y. (1996). Enhancement of lacase activity in liquid cultures of the lignolytic fungus Pleurotus ostreatus by cotton stalks extract. J. Biotechnol. 51, 201-207.
Arora J.K., Kakkar V.K., Sukhvir K. and Kaur S. (1994). Bioconversion of agro residues for food and feed. Agric. Rev. Karnal. 15, 3-4.
Belewu M.A. and Okhawere K. (1998). Evaluation of Feeding Fungi Treated Rice Husk to Ram. Pp. 321-322 in Proc. 25th Annual Conf., Silver Jubilee of the Soc. Anim. Prod. Nigeria.
Call H.P. and Mücke I. (1997). History, overview and applications of mediated lignolytic systems, especially lacase-mediator systems (Lignozym-process).J. Biotechnol. 53, 163-202.
Chen X.B. (1995). "Fitcurve" Macro, IFRU, The Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
Falcon M.A., Rodriguez A., Carnicero A., Regalado V., Perestelo F., Milstein O. and Fuente G.L. (1995). Isolation of microorganisms with lignin transformation potential from soil of Tenerife Island. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 121-126.
Fazaeli H., Mahmodzadeh H., Azizi A., Jelan Z.A., Liang J.B., Rouzbehan Y. and Osman A. (2004). Nutritive value of wheat straw treated with Pleurotus fungi. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 17(12), 1681-1688.
Gutierrez A., Prieto A. and Martinez A.T. (1996). Structure characterization of extracellultar polysaccharides produced by fungi from the genus Pleurotus. Carbohyd. Res. 281, 143-154.
Iyayi E.A. and Aderolu Z.A. (2004). Enhancement of the feeding value of some agro industrial by products for laying hens after their solid state fermentation with Trichoderma viride. African J. Biotechnol. 3(3), 182-185.
Jahromi M.F., Liang J.B., Rosfarizan M., Goh Y.M., Shokryzadeh P. and Ho Y.W. (2010). Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw. African J. Biotechnol. 9, 7043-7047.
Jennings D.H. and Lysek G. (1996). Fungal Biology. 2e Syn. Understanding the Fungal Lifestyle. BIOS Scientific Publishers. Ltd., United Kingdom.
Kadiri M. (1999). Changes in intracellular and extracellular enzymes activities of Lentinus subnudus during sporophore development. Biosci. Res. Commun. 11(2), 127-130.
Kundu S.S. (1994). Compositional changes and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw fermented with sporulating fungi. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 47, 835-837.
Leng R.A. (1991). Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries. FAO Anim. Prod. Health. 90-124.
Matsuzaki K.O.I.S., Tanaka T., Iizuka M., Taniguchi M. and Prasertsan P. (1994). Effect of steam explosion treatment on enzymatic-hydrolysis of palm cake and fibre solid-waste and natural resources. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 77(3), 326-328.
Moyson E. and Verachtert H. (1991). Growth of higher fungi on wheat straw and their impact on the digestibility of the substrate. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36, 421-424.
NRC. (1985). Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 6th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Orskov E.R. and McDonald I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92, 499-503.
OrskovE.R., Hovell F.D. and Mould F. (1980). The use of the nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuffs. Trop. Anim. Prod. 5, 195-213.
Otjen L., Blanchette R., Effland M. and Leatham G. (1987). Assessment of 30 white rots Basidiomycetes for selective lignin degradation. Holzforschung. 41, 343-349.
Ragunathan R., Gurusamy R., Palaniswamy M. and Swaminathan M. (1996). Cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on various agro-residues. Food Chem. 55, 139-144.
Rahal A., Singh A. and Singh M. (1997). Effect of urea treatment and diet composition on and prediction of nutritive value of rice straw of different cultivars. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 68, 165-182.
Rodrigues M.A.M., Pinto P., Bezerra R.M.F., Dias A.A., Guedes C.V.M., Cardoso V.M.G., Cone J.W., Ferreira L.M.M., Colaco J. and Sequeria C.A. (2008). Effect of enzyme extract isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141, 326-338.
Sallam S.M.A., Nasser M.E.A., El-Waziry A.M., Bueno F.C.S. and Abdallah A.L. (2007). Use of yam in vitro rumen gas Production technique to evaluate some ruminant feedstuffs. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 3(1), 34-41.
SAS Institute. (2002). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Sharma D.D., Rangnekar D.V. and Singh M. (1993). Physical and chemical treatment of fibrous crop residues to improve nutritive value: a review. Pp. 486-491 in Feeding of Ruminants on Fibrous Crop Residues. K. Singh and J.B. Schiere, Eds. New Delhi, India.
Singh K., Rai S.N., Rakatan M. and Han Y.W. (1990). Biochemical profiles of solid state fermented wheat straw with Coprinus fimetarius. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 60, 984-990.
Tripathi J.P. and Yadav J.S. (1992). Optimisation of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw into animal feed by Pleurotus ostreatus: a pilot effort. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 37, 59-72.
Valmaseda M., Almendros G. and Martinez A.T. (1991). Chemical transformation of wheat straw constituents after solid state fermentation with selected lignocellulose degrading fungi. Biomass. Bioener. 1(5), 261-266.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal’s nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Yalchi T. and Hajieghrari B. (2011). Effect of fungal treatment on chemical composition and in vitro ruminal digestibility of some agricultural residues. African J. Biotechnol. 10(85), 19707-19713.
Yamakawa M., Abe H. and Okamoto M. (1992). Effect of incubation with edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on voluntary intake and digestibility of rice straw by sheep. Anim. Sci. Technol. 63, 133-138.
Zadrazil F. (1985). Screening of fungi for lignin decomposition and conversion of straw inton feed. Angew. Bot. 59, 433-452.
ZadrazilF. (1993). Conversion of lignocellulose waste into animal feed with white rot fungi. Pp. 151-161 in Proc. Int. Conf., Mushroom Biology. Slovak.
Zadrazil F., Isikhuemhen N.D.O.S., Schuchardt F. and Flachowsky G. (1996). Bioconversion of lignocellulose into ruminal feed with white-rot fungi. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 10, 105- 124.