Department of Animal Science, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran
Receive Date: 11 July 2013,
Revise Date: 31 July 2013,
Accept Date: 01 August 2013
In this experiment 144 Hy-line (W36) laying hens, 65 to 77 weeks of age were separated into 4 treatments with 3 replicates (12 birds per replicate) in a completely randomized design experiment. The grass clipping wastes incorporated into a complete formulated layer diet, consisting on a corn and soybean based diet, were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% in 1 to 4 experimental groups. The results showed that using different levels of clipping waste significantly affected the performance, egg traits, blood biochemical parameters and immune cells of laying hens (P<0.05). The highest amounts of egg mass, feed intake, percent of egg production, the best feed conversion ratio, the lowest feed price for per kilogram of egg production and the highest egg yolk color index were obtained when using 3% of clipping waste. Despite this, the highest amounts of egg weight and egg specific gravity, the highest percentages of egg albumin and red blood cells were observed by using 4.5% of clipping waste. The highest level of blood HDL and percent lymphocyte and the lowest ratio of lymphocyte / heterophil were obtained using 1.5% of clipping waste. The overall results indicated that in laying hens, using clipping waste up to 3.0% of diets, significantly improved their performance, egg traits, blood biochemical parameters and immune cells. However, using 4.5% of clipping waste compared with control group, not only did not have any adverse effects on noticed parameters, but also improved them.
Afraz F., Lotfollahian H., Tohidian MT., Mirabdolbaاi J. and Fazaeli H. (1983). Comparative studyon different levels of alfalfa and berseem clover meal in rations of broiler. Paj. Saz.56, 99-103. Al Haweizy A. and Al-Sardary S. (2007). Effect of dehydrated alfalfa and age on egg weight, eggmass, feed intake, and feed conversion efficiency in Hi-line W-98 layers. Slovak. J.Anim. Sci.40(1), 19-23. AOAC. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Dermin A.V., Murusidza D.N., Stepanova N.A. and Krivickaja S. (1965). Preparation and use ofgrass meal as a source of protein and vitamins. Zivotonovad Stvo.6, 4-11. Donalson L.M., Kiui W.K., Woodward C.L., Herrera P., Kubena L.F., Nisbet D.J. and Ricke S.C. (2005). Utilizing different ratios of alfalfa in laying ration for melt induction and performance in commercial laying hens. Poult. Sci.84, 362-369. Farkhoy M., Sigharody F. and Niknafas F. (1994). Poultry Breeding. Coasar Publication. Gross W.B. and Sigel P.S. (1983). Evaluation of heterophile to lymphocyte ratio asmeasure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis.27, 972-979. NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry9th Edn. NationalAcademyPress, Washington, DC. Nazic A., Rezaei M.and Sayyahzadeh H. (2010). Effect of different levels of dried citruspulp on performance, egg quality and blood parameters of laying hens in early phase ofproduction. Trop.Anim.Health Prod. 2, 737-742. Nazifi S. (1997). Hematology and Clinical Biochemistry of Birds. Shiraz University Publication. Nobakht A. (2009). Investigation the effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance of laying hens. Paj. Saz.80, 55-60. Nobakht A. and Mehmannavaz Y. (2010). Investigation the effects of using ofThymusvulgaris, Lamiaceae menthapiperita,Oreganum valgaremedicinal plantson performance, egg quality, blood and immunityparameters of layinghens. Iranian J. Anim. Sci. 41, 129-136. Patzschke D. (1965). Potato flakes, beet pulp and Lucerne meal in broiler. Zivocvry.10, 127-132. SAS Institute. (2005). SAS Users guide: Statistics. Version 9.12. SAS InstituteInc., Cary, NC. Sayiedpiran S.A., Nobakht A. and Khodaei S. (2011). The effects of using of probiotic, organic acid and blends of some medicinal herbs on performance, egg quality, blood biochemicaland immunity parameters of laying hens. Islamic Azad Univ. Tabriz J.5, 1111-1122. Sturkie P.D. (1995). Avian Physiology. Springer Verlag. New York. ValizadehM. and Moghaddam M. (1994). Experimental Designs in Agriculture. Pishtaz Elem Pub. Waugh A. and Grant A. (2001). Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. Churchill Livingstone, an Imprint of Elsevier Science Limited. Zafar F., Idrees M. and Ahmad Z. (2005). Use of apple byproducts in rations of broiler chicksinKarachi. Pakistan J. Physiol.1, 13-18. Zarei M., Ehsani M. and Torki M. (2011). Productive performance of laying hens fed wheat-based diets included olive pulp with or without a commercial enzyme product. African J. Biotech.20, 4303-4312. Zargari A. (1990). Herbal Medicines. Publication of Tehran University, Tehran.