A Comparative Study of Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Semen Quality in Relation to Fertility of Black Bengal Goats


1 Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh

2 Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

3 Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali, Bangladesh

4 Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA


Semen from six adult male Black Bengal goats (Capra hircus) was collected to compare the fresh and frozen-thawed semen quality and investigate its relationship with the fertility. Each collected samples was divided into two parts: One part of semen was used as fresh and another part was filled into 0.50 ml straws, sealed, cooled (5 ˚C) and equilibrated for freezing.In both cases, semen was diluted with commercial Triladyl diluent (a Tris based diluter). The motility and morphology of fresh and frozen-thawed semen was subjectively evaluated by one operator. It was revealed that motility and sperm abnormality of the frozen semen differed significantly (P<0.05), but differed insignificantly in fresh semen between males. Besides these, fresh and frozen-thawed sperm motilities also differed significantly (P<0.01) between males which varied from 70.83±1.54 to 74.23±1.59% and 44.17±2.39 to 52.31±1.08%, respectively. A significantly (P<0.01) higher sperm abnormalities was observed in frozen-thawed semen (11.18±0.42 to 16.55±0.09%) than that of fresh semen (8.82±0.24 to 9.71±0.52%). Cervical inseminations were performed with fresh and frozen-thawed semen in 997 and 1004 female goats, respectively, both at Nucleus Breeding Flock (NBF) and four project areas. Fresh semen showed significantly (P<0.01) higher kidding rates (59.8%) than that with frozen-thawed semen (43.9%). The motilities of fresh and frozen-thawed semen were positively correlated (0.526 and 0.987; P<0.01), whereas the proportion of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was negatively correlated (-0.530 and -0.776) with fertility of Black Bengal goats. Males with a higher motility and lower proportion of abnormal spermatozoa provided better fertility.


Afroz S., Islam M.R., Khandoker M.A.M.Y. and Akter Q.S. (2008). Cryopreservation of Black Bengal buck semen: Effects of diluents and freezing on sperm motility and morphology. Anim. Sci. J. 79, 550-553.
Akhter S., Husain S.S., Amin M.R. and Munzur M. (2000).Study on the pre and post weaning growth competence in Black Bengal goats. Bang. J. Anim. Sci. 29, 69-79.
Amin M.R. (1999). Breeding for sustainable goat production in Bangladesh. Sustainable animal production. Pp. 306-310 Proc. International Conference on Sustainable Animal Production, Health and Environment. Haryana Agril. Univ. India.
Amin M.R., Husain S.S. and Islam A.B.M.M. (2000). Reproductive peculiarities and litter weight in goats. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 3, 297-301.
Arav A., Michal P. and Zeron Y. (2000). Does lipid profile explain chilling sensitivity and membrane lipid phase transition of spermatozoa and oocytes? Cryo let. 21, 179-186.
Corteel J.M. (1973). Linsemination artificielle caprine: bases physiologiques, etat actuel et perspectives d’avenir. World Rev. Anim. Prod. 9, 73-99.
Corteel J.M., Baril G. and Leboeuf B. (1987). Development and application of artificial insemination with deep frozen semen and out‐of season breeding of goats in France. Pp. 523-547 in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Goats. Brasilia.
D’alessandro A.G., Martemucci G., Colonna M.A. and Bellitti A. (2001). Post-thaw survival of ram spermatozoa and fertility after insemination as affected by prefreezing sperm concentration and extender composition Theriogen. 55, 1159-1170.
Dauzier L. (1966). Artificial insemination in the goat.  Pp. 269-271 inDalling,. Int. Encyclopedia of Veterinary Medicine, W. Green and Soon.
Dorado J., RodríguezI. and Hidalgo M. (2007). Cryopreservation of goat spermatozoa: Comparison of two freezing extenders based on post-thaw sperm quality and fertility rates after artificial insemination. Theriogenology. 68, 168-177.
Drobnis E.S., Crowe L.M., Berger T., Anchodoguy T.J., Overstreet J.W. and Crowe J.H. (1993). Cold shock demage is due to lipid phase transition in cell membranes: a demonstration using sperm as a model. J. Exp. Zool. 265(4), 432-437.
Gacitua H. and Arav A. (2005). Successful pregnancies with directional freezing of large volume buck semen. Theriogenology. 63, 931-938.
Garde J.J., Soler A.J., Cassinello J., Crespo C., Malo A.F. and Espeso G.( 2003). Sperm cryopreservation in three species of endangered gazelles (Gazella cuvieri, G. dama mhorr, and G. dorcas neglecta). Biol. Reprod. 69, 602-611.
Herman H.A. and Madden F.W. (1963). The Artificial Insemination of Dairy and Beef Cattle. A Handbook and Laboratory Manual. Locas Brothers, Columbia, Missouri, USA.
Husain S.S., Horst P. and Islam A.B.M.M. (1996). Study on the growth performance of Black Bengal goats in different periods. Small Rumin. Res. 21, 165-171.
JohnstonL.A. and Lacy R.C. (1995). Genome resource banking for species conservation: selection of sperm donors. Cryobiol. 32, 68-77.
Karatzas G., Karagiannidis A., Varsakeli S. and Brikas P. (1997). Fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed goat semen during the nonbreeding season. Theriogenology. 48, 1049-1059.
Mauleon P. and Dauzier, L. (1965). Variations de duree de l’anoestrus de lactation chez les brebis de race Ile-de-France. Annales de Biologie Animale, de Biochimie et de Biophysiquw. 5, 131-143.
Maxwell W.M.C. and Salamon S. (1993). Liquid storage of ram semen: a review. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 14, 83-89.
Rao V.H. and Bhattacharyya N.K. (1980). Ovulation in Black Bengal nanny goats. J. Reprod. Fertil. 58, 67-69.
Ritar A.J., Ball P.D. and O’may P.J. (1990). Artificial insemination of Cashmeregoats: Effects on fertility and fecundity of intravaginal treatment, method and time of insemination, semen freezing process, number of motile spermatozoa and age of females. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 2, 377-384.
Ritar A.J. and Salomon S. (1983). Fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed semen of the Angora goat. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 36, 49-59.
Salamon S. and Maxwell W.M.C. (1995). Frozen storage of ram semen: II. Causes of low fertility after cervical insemination and methods of improvement. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 38, 1-36.
Salamon, S., Visser, D. (1972). Effect of the composition of Tris-based diluent and of thawing solution on survival of ram spermatozoa frozen by the pellet method. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 25, 605-618.
SAS. Statistical Analysis System, Version 6.03. SAS Institute Inc. CaryNC, 1998; 25-109 USA.
Steel R.G.D. and Torrie J.H. (1980). Principles and Procedures in Statistics. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Company Inc. New York,
Watson P.F. (2000). The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved semen. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60, 481-492.