1Department of Animal Science, QaemshahrBranch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran
2Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
Receive Date: 01 November 2010,
Revise Date: 31 March 2011,
Accept Date: 17 June 2011
This research was conducted to estimate the amount of microbial protein synthesis in Iranian buffaloes' rumen. Four male swamp buffaloes with average live body weight of 140±10 kg were used in this study. Four diets of 0 (control diet, 100% forage), 15, 30 and 45% concentrate in a 4 × 4 Latin Square were tested. The results indicated that by increasing the concentrate level in the diet of swamp buffaloes. the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in urine. The amount of allantoin excreted in urine increased by increasing concentrate level form 0 to 45% (13.2 and 21.8 mmol/day; P<0.01). There was no significant difference between uric acid excretion from buffaloes fed with diets contained 15 and 30% or 30 and 45% concentrate (P>0.01). However, there was a significant difference between diets containing 45 and 15% concentrate level (P<0.01). The difference between control diet and other diets containing different levels of concentrates were significant (P<0.01). The total purine derivatives excretion and microbial nitrogen synthesis in rumen increased from 14.5 in control diet to 18.11, 21.58 and 24.55 mmol/day and from 38.76 in control diet to 60.44, 81.48 and 99.43 g/day in buffalos fed diets containing 15, 30 and 45% concentrate, respectively. The results of this experiment indicated that increasing the concentrate level in diet of swamp buffaloes increases the amount of microbial protein synthesized in rumen.
Alipoor H., Khorshidi K.J., Jafari M.A. and Kioumarsi H. (2009). The effect of adding tallow and canola oil in diet on microbial protein synthesis and protozoal population in rumen. Pp. 658-689 inProc. Ana World Conference. February New Delhi, India. ARC. (1980). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock, Technical Review. Farnham Royal, CAB, UK. ARC. (1984). Report of the Protein Group of the Agricultural Research CouncilWorking Party on the Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants. Slough, EnglandCommonwealthAgriculturalBureau. 45 Pp. Ashabi S.M., Khorshidi J.K., Rezaeian M. and Kioumarsi H. (2009). The effect of different levels of beef tallow in diet on microbial protein supply and protozoal population fluctuation in rumen of Sheep. Page 36 in Proc. The 60th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Barcelona, Spain. AFRC. (1993). Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. Balcells J., Guada J.A., Castrillo C. and Gasa J. (1993). Rumen digestion and urinary excretion of purine derivatives in response to urea supplementation of sodium-treated straw fed to sheep. Br. J. Nutr.69, 721-732. Balcells J.,Gamuza J.M., Perez J.F., Martin-Orue S.M. and Gonzalez Ronquillo M. (1998). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial-nitrogen intake in growing rabbits. Br. J. Nutr.79, 373-380. Belenguer A., Yan˜ez D., Balcells J., Ozdemir Baber N.H. and Gonzalez Ronquillo M. (2002). Urinary excretions of purine derivatives and prediction of rumen microbial outflow in goats. Livest. Prod. Sci. 77, 127-135. Cetinkaya N., Yaman S., Gucus A.I., Ozcan H. and Uluturk S. (1999). Measuring microbial protein supply from purine excretion in Yerli Kara cattle. Pp. 69-79. In: TECDOC-1093. IAEA, Vienna. Cetinkaya N., Yaman S., Gucus A.I., Ozcan H. and Uluturk S. (2001). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle. Turk. J. Nucl. Sci. 27, 13-32. Cetinkaya N., Yaman S. and Ozdemir Baber N.H. (2006). The use of purine derivatives/creatinine ratio in spot urine samples as an index of microbial protein supply in Yerli Kara crossbred cattle. Livest. Sci. 100, 91- 98. Chen X.B. (1989). Excretion of purine derivatives by sheep and cattle and it use for the estimation of absorbed microbial protein. Ph.D Thesis, Universityof Aberdeen. Chen X.B., Hovell F.D., Ørskov E.R. and Brown D.S. (1990). Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply on purine derivative excretion by sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63, 131-142. Chen X.B. and Gomes M.J. (1992). Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives-An overview of the technical details, International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn Aberdeen AB2 9SB, UK Occasional Publication. Chen X.B., Samaraweera L., Kyle D.J., Ørskov E.R. and Abeygunawardene H. (1996). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and tissue xanthine oxidase activity in buffaloes, with special reference to differences between buffaloes and Bos taurus. Br. J. Nutr. 75, 397-407. Chen X.B. and Ørskov E.R. (2004). Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: past, present and future. Pp. 180-210. In: Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivative. H.P.S. Makkar and X.B. Chen. FAO/IAEA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Daniels Z.M., Chen X.B., Kyle D.J., Sinciatr K. and Orskov E.R. (1994). Purine derivatives in urine and plasma of lactating cows given different levels of feed intake. Anim. Prod. 58, 463. Djouvinov D.S. and Todorov N.A. (1994). Influence of dry matter intake and passage rate on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep and its estimation by cannulation and a non-invasive method. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48, 289-304. Guerouali A., El Gass Y., Balcells J., Belenguer A. and Nolan J. (2004). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Br. J. Nutr. 92, 225-232. Grootveld M. and Halliwell B. (1987). Measurement of allantoin and uric acid in human body fluids. J. Biochem. 243, 803-805. Khorshidi K.J., Rezaean M., Zahedi Far M. and Mirhadi S.A.(2007). Effect of defaunating the rumen of sheep fed various diets on gas production in vitro. J. Pajouhesh-Va-Sazandegi. 73, 30-35. Khorshidi K.J., Kioumarsi H., Yahaya Z.S. and Abedi Chemazkoti S. (2010). Awareness of Soybean Meal Ruminal Degradability. Pp. 12-13 inProc. Australian Summer Grains Conference Grains Research and Development Corporation, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Liang J.B., Pimpa O., Balcells J., Abdullah N. and Jeland Z. (2004). An overview on the use of urinary purine derivatives excretion as a method for estimation of rumen microbial protein production in swamp buffaloes and zebu cattle. Pp. 42-51. In: Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivative. H.P.S. Makkar and X.B. Chen FAO/IAEA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Lindberg J.E. (1985). Urinary allantoin excretion and digestible organic matter intake in dairy goats. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 15, 31-37. Lindberg J.E. (1989). Nitrogen metabolism and urinary excretion of purines in goat kids. Br. J. Nutr. 61, 309-321. McAllenA.B. and Smith R.H. (1973). Degradation of nucleic acids in the rumen. Br. J. Nutr. 29, 331-345. Mupangwa J.F., Ngongoni N.T., Topps J.H., Acamovic T., Hamudikuwanda H. and Ndlovu L.R. (2000). Dry matter intake, apparent digestibility and excretion of purine derivatives in sheep fed tropical legume hay. Small Rumin. Res. 36, 261-268. MuraU., Osman A.M., Mohamed A.S. and Ipata P.L. (1986). Studies on purine turnover in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and zebu (Bos indicus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 84, 589-593. Orellana Boero P., Balcells J., Martı´n-Oru´e S., Liang J.B. and Guada J.A. (2001). Excretion of purine derivatives in cows: endogenous contribution and recovery of exogenous purine bases. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68, 243-250. SAS. (1996). SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Version 6 (4th Ed.). SAS Inst. Inc. Cary, NC. Soejono M., Yusiati L.M., Backrudin Z., Budhi S.P.S., Widyobroto B.P. and Utomo R. (2004). Flow of nucleic acids from the rumen and recovery of purine derivatives in the urine of cattle and buffaloes. Pp. 69-74. In: Estimation of microbial protein supply in ruminants using urinary purine derivative. H.P.S. Makkar and X.B. Chen FAO/IAEA, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Verbic J., Chen X.B., MacLeod N.A. and Ørskov E.R. (1990). Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants. Effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on purine derivative excretion by steers. J. Agric. Sci. 114, 243-248. Vo T.K.T. and Ørskov E.R. (2006). Causes of differences in urinary excretion of purine derivatives in buffaloes and cattle. J. Anim. Sci.82, 355-358. WattsR.W.E. (1980). Biochemical aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. Pp. 106-117. In: European Association of Animal Production Publication no 27. Braunschweig: Federal Republic of Germany.