Effect of Extrusion and Conventional Processing Methods on the Levels of Anti-Nutrients Factors and Digestibility of Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia) Seeds in Broilers

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Animal Science and Fishery, Sari University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran

Abstract

Comparative effects of extrusion cooking and conventional processing methods (cooking and autoclaving) on anti-nutritional factors and subsequent effects on in vitro and in vivo digestibility of Vicia ervilia in broilers were investigated. Treatments had significant effect (P<0.05) on chemical compositions so that decreased moisture, starch, crude protein, ether extract and crude fiber contents. Treatments of seeds resulted in significant reduction of total phenols, tannins, condensed tannins, canavanine and trypsin inhibitor activity (P<0.05). Treatments improved (P<0.05) in vivo digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, true protein, starch and gross energy. Extrusion was the most effective method to reduction of anti-nutritional factors without modifying protein content. Furthermore, this thermal treatment was the most effective in improving protein and starch digestibilities when compared with soaking, cooking and autoclaving.

Keywords


Adebowale Y.A., Adeyemi A. and Oshodi A.A. (2005). Physicochemical and antinutritional attributes: variability in the physicochemical and antinutritional attributes of six Mucuna species. Food Chem. 89, 37-48.
Aletor V.A., Goodchild A.V. and Moneim A.E. (1994). Nutritional and antinutritional charactristic of selected Vicia genotypes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 47, 125-139.
Alonso R., Grant G., Dewey P. and Marzo F. (2000). Nutritional assessment of extruded peas: nutritional assessment in vitro and in vitro of raw and extruded peas (Pisum sativum). J. Agric. Food Chem. 68, 2286-2290.
Amornthewaphat N. and Attamangkune S. (2008). Extrusion on digestibility and growth: extrusion and animal performance effects of extruded maize quality on digestibility and growth performance in rats and nursery pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 144, 292-305.
Amornthewaphat N. and Attamangkune S. (2010). Extrusion and animal performance effects of extruded maize quality on digestibility and growth performance in rats and nursery pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 144, 292-305.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
Bradford M.M. (1976). Quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing: a rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248-254.
Cacho J., Garcia M.A. and Ferrando I. (1989). Canavanine: selective spectrophotometric determination of canavanine. Analyst. 114, 965-968.
Farran M.T., Barbour G.W., Uwayjan M.G. and Ashkarian V.M. (2001). Energy and amino acid availability of vetch: metabolizable energy values and amino acid availability of Vetch (Vicia sativa) and Ervil (Vicia ervilia) seeds soaked in water and acetic acid. Poult. Sci. 80, 931-936.
Htoon A., Shrestha A.K., Flanagan B.M., Lopez-Rubio A., Bird A.R., Gilbert E.P. and Gidley M.J. (2009). Effects of processing high amylose maize starches under controlled conditions on structural organization and amylase digestibility. Carbo. Poly. 75, 236-245.
Iwe M.O., Van Zuilichem D.J., Stolp W. and Ngoddy P.O. (2004). Extrusion on soy-sweet potato: effect of extrusion cooking of soy-sweet potato mixtures on available lysine content and browning index of extrudates. J. Food Engin. 62, 143-150.
Gopalan C., Rama Sastri B.V. and Balasubramanian S.C. (1989). Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical.
Pham C.B. and Del Rosario R.R. (1987). Inactivation of trypsin inhibitors using the extrusion process. Pp. 359-366 in Proc. 7th World Cong. Food Sci. Technol., Singapore.
Porter I.J., Hrstich L.N. and Chan B.G. (1986). Procyanidin and prodelphinidins: the conversion of procyanidin and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin. Phytochemist. 25, 223-230.
Rehman Z.U. and Shah W.H. (2005). Thermal heat processing on legumes: thermal heat processing effects on antinutrients, protein and starch digestibility of food legumes. Food Chem. 91, 327-331.
Rosset J., Barlocher F. and Oertli J.J. (1982). Conifer needles and deciduous leaves: decomposition of conifer needles and deciduous leaves in two Black Forest and two Swiss Jura streams. Int. Rev. Gesam. Hydrobiol. 67, 695-711.
SAS Institute. (2008). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.2. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Smith C., Van Megan W., Twaalhoven L. and Hitchcook C. (1980). Trypsin inhibitor: determination of trypsin inhibitor levels in foodstuffs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 31, 341-350.
Vijayakumari K., Pugalenthi M. and Vadivel V. (2007). Digestibility of Bauhinia purpurea: effect of soaking and hydrothermal processing methods on the levels of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of Bauhinia purpurea. Seed. Food Chem. 103, 968-975.
Yu Y. and Wang J. (2007). Gama-ray on rice: effect of gama-ray irradiation on starch granule structure and physicochemical properties of rice. Food Res. Int. 40, 297-303.
Zhang D.P., Collins W.W. and Andrade M. (1995). Starch digestibility in sweet-potato: estimation of genetic variance of starch digestibility in sweet-potato. Hortscience. 30, 348-349.