1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2Departmentof Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Armenian National Agrarian University, Yerevan, Armenia
Receive Date: 25 November 2013,
Revise Date: 21 January 2014,
Accept Date: 30 January 2014
Twenty four primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows on early lactation, beginning five weeks postpartum, were used for four weeks to investigate the effects of supplemention of rumen-protected choline (RPC) or vitamin E on milk yield, milk composition, dry matter intake, body condition score and body weight. The cows were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: I)no supplement (control), II)90 g/d of RPC and III)4400 IU/d of vitamin E. In this study, dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield and the contents and yields of all milk constituents, except the content of solid non fat (SNF) for RPC group, were not affected by choline or vitamin E supplementation (P>0.05). The RPC increased (P<0.05) the content of SNF compared with the control and vitamin E groups. The results showed that RPC or vitamin E supplementation into the diets of early lactating dairy cows did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition, body condition score and body weight.
AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Bell A.W. (1995). Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.J. Anim. Sci. 73, 2804-2819. Brüsemeister F. and Südekum K. (2006). Rumen-protected choline for dairy cows: the in situ evaluation of a commercial source and literature evaluation of effects on performance and interactions between methionine and choline metabolism.Anim. Res. 55, 93-104. Burton G.W. and Traber M.G. (1990). Vitamin E: antioxidant activity, biokinetics, and bioavailability.Ann. Rev. Nutr. 10, 357-382. Cooke R.R., Grummer R.R., Bertics S.J., Caraviello D.Z., Ramos M.H. and Rio N.S.d. (2004). Supplemental choline for prevention and alleviation of fatty liver.J. Dairy Sci. 87, 343-348. Davidson S., Hopkins B.A., Odle J., Brownie C., Fellner V. and Whitlow L.W. (2008). Supplementing limited methionine diets with rumen-protected methionine, betaine, and choline in early lactation Holstein cows.J. Dairy Sci. 91, 1552-1559. Defrain J.M., Hippen A.R., Kalscheur K.F. and Schingoethe D.J. (2006). Feeding lactose to increase ruminal butyrate and the metabolic status of transition dairy cows.J. Dairy Sci. 89, 267-276. Drackley J.K., Overton T.R. and Douglas G.N. (2001). Adaptations of glucose and long-chain fatty acid metabolism in liver of dairy cows during periparturient period.J. Dairy Sci. 84, 100-112. Erdman R.A. and Sharma B.K. (1991). Effect of dietary rumen-protected choline in lactating dairy cows.J. Dairy Sci. 74, 1641-1647. Gaines W.L. (1928). The Energy Basis of Measuring Milk Yield in Dairy Cows. University of Illinois, USA. Givens D.I., Allison R., Cottrill B. and Blake J.S. (2004). Alteration of the form and concentration of selenium in the diet of the dairy cow.J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 811-817. Goff J.P. and Horst R.L. (1997). Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders.J. Dairy Sci. 80, 1260-1268. Hartwell J.R., Cecava M.J. and Donkin S.S. (2000). Impact of dietary rumen undegradable protein and rumen-protected choline on intake, peripartum liver triacylglyceride, plasma metabolites and milk production in transition dairy cows.J. Dairy Sci. 83, 2907-2917. Herdt T.H. and Smith J.C. (1996). Blood-lipid and lactation-stage factors affecting serum vitamin E concentrations and vitamin E cholesterol ratios in dairy cattle.J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 8, 228-232. Idilio-Zamin J.R., De-Mattos A.A., De-Mattos A.Z., Coral G., Santos D. and Cláudia R. (2010). Vitamin E reduces liver lipoperoxidation and fibrosis in a model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Arqu. Gastroenterol. 47, 86-92. Janovick Guretzky N.A., Carlson D.B., Garrett J.E. and Drackley J.K. (2006). Lipid metabolite profiles and milk production for Holstein and Jersey cows fed rumen-protected choline during the periparturient period.J. Dairy Sci. 89, 188-200. Kay J.K., Roche J.R., Kolver E.S., Thomson N.A. and Baumgard L.H. (2005). A comparison between feeding systems (pasture and TMR) and the effect of vitamin E supplementation on plasma and milk fatty acid profiles in dairy cows.J. Dairy Res. 72, 322-332. Kung L., Putnam D.E. and Garrett J.E. (2003). Comparison of commercially available rumen-stable choline products.J. Dairy Sci. 86, 275-281. Leedle R.A., Leedle J.A. and Butine M.D. (1993). Vitamin E is not degraded by ruminal microorganisms: assessment with ruminal contents from a steer fed a high-concentrate diet.J. Anim. Sci. 71, 3442-3450. Levine J.E. (2000). Vitamin E treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in children: a pilot study.J. Ped. 136, 734-738. NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. Overton T.R. and Waldron M.R. (2004). Nutritional management of transition dairy cows: strategies to optimize metabolic health.J. Dairy Sci. 87, 105-119. Patel K. and Babich M. (2010). Efficacy of vitamin E and vitamin C in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Pract. Gastroenter. 18, 20-27. Piepenbrink M.S. and Overton T.R. (2003). Liver metabolism and production of cows fed increasing amounts of rumen-protected choline during the periparturient period.J. Dairy Sci. 86, 1722-1733. Pinotti L., Baldi A. and Dell’orto V. (2002). Comparative mammalian choline metabolism with emphasis on the high-yielding dairy cow.Nutr. Res. Rev. 15, 315-331. Pinotti L., Baldi A., Politis I., Rebucci R., Sangalli L. and Dell’orto V. (2003). Rumen protected choline administration to transition cows: Effect on milk production and vitamin E status.J. Vet. Med. 50, 18-21. Pottier J., Focant M., Debier C., De-Buysser G., Goffe C., Mignolet E., Froidmont E. and Larondelle Y. (2006). Effect of dietary vitamin E on rumen biohydrogenation pathways and milk fat depression in dairy cows fed high-fat diets.J. Dairy Sci. 89, 685-692. SAS Institute. (2002). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. Van soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597. Xu G., Ye J., Liu J. and Yu Y. (2006). Effect of rumen-protected choline addition on milk performance and blood metabolic parameters in transition dairy cows.Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 19, 390-395. Zahra L.C., Duffield T.F., Leslie K.E., Overton T.R., Putnam D. and Leblanc S.J. (2006). Effects of rumen-protected choline and monensin on milk production and metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.J. Dairy Sci. 89, 4808-4818. Zom R.L.G., van-Baal J., Goselink R.M.A., Bakker J.A., de-Veth M.J. and van-Vuuren A.M. (2011). Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle.J. Dairy Sci. 94, 4016-4027.