1Department of Animal Production, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
2Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Receive Date: 12 March 2014,
Revise Date: 18 May 2014,
Accept Date: 31 May 2014
To evaluatethe effects of supplementing diets of growing Japanese quails (n=450; 7 days old) with chromium (Cr) yeast and / or mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on productive performance, carcass traits and the immune system are reported. Diets were a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg Cr-yeast/kg (Cr 1), 1200 mg Cr-yeast/kg (Cr 2), 1.0 g MOS/kg, Cr 1 + MOS or Cr 2 + MOS. Quails fed Cr 1, MOS or Cr 1 + MOS diets had similar final live body weight and weight gain, with both groups being higher than the control. Feed conversion tended to be improved with dietary supplements. Carcass traits did not differ among treatments. Primary and secondary humoral immune responses of quails fed the supplemented diets were higher than the control. Plasma total proteins and triiodothyronine were increased, while plasma total lipids and cholesterol were decreased by the supplements. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with Cr yeast (600 mg/kg) and / or mannan oligosaccharides(1.0 g) improved productive performanceand immunity and reduced total cholesterol ofgrowing Japanese quails.
Akiba Y., Jensen L.S., Bart C.R. and Kraeling R.R. (1982). Plasma estradiol, thyroid hormones and liver lipids determination in birds.J. Nutr. 112, 299-308. Al-Kassi G.A.M. and Witwit N.M. (2010). A comparative study on diet supplementation with a mixture of herbal plants and dandelion as a source of prebiotics on the performance of broilers. Pakistan J. Nutr. 9, 67-71. Al-Mashhadani E.H., Ibrahim D.K. and Al-Bandr L.K. (2010). Effect of supplementing different levels of chromium yeast to diet on broiler chickens performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9, 376-381. Ayasan T. (2013). Effects of dietary inclusion of protexin (probiotic) on hatchability of Japanese quails. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 83,78-81. Bonos E.M., Christaki E.V. and Florou-Paneri P.C. (2010). Effect of dietary supplementation of mannan oligosaccharides and acidifier calcium propionate on the performance and carcass quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9, 264-272. Bozkurt M., Küçükyilmaz K., Catli A.U. and Çinar M. (2008). Growth performance and slaughter characteristics of broiler chickens fed with antibiotic, mannan oligosaccharide and dextran oligosaccharide supplemented diets. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7, 969-977. Colgan M. (1993). Chromium boosts insulin efficiency. Pp. 313-320 in Optimum Sports Nutrition. Advanced research press. New York, USA. Cupo M.A. and Donaldson W.E. (1987). Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in the chick. Poult. Sci. 66, 120-128. Dumas B.T. and Biggs H.G. (1972). Standard methods of clinical chemistry.New York, USA. Duncan D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple “F” test. Biometrics. 11, 1-42. El-Hommosan Y.M. (2008). Study of the physiological changes in blood chemistry, humoral immune response and performance of quail chicks fed supplemental chromium.Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7, 40-44. Ghosh H.K., Halder G., Samanta G. andKoley S. (2008). Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acid and mannan oligosaccharides on the plasma minerals and carcass traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Res. J. Vet. Sci. 1, 44-49. Ghosh H.K., Halder G., Samanta G., Paul S.K. and Pyne S.K. (2007). Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acid and mannan oligosaccharides on the performance and gut health of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Asian J. Poult. Sci. 1, 1-7. Henry R.J. (1964). Clinical Chemistry. Principles and Techniques. Harper and Raw. New York, USA. Hossain S., Barreto S.L. andSilva C.G. (1998). Growth performance and carcass composition of broilers fed supplemental chromium from chromium yeast. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 71, 217-228. Knight J.A., Anderson S. and Rawle J.M. (1972). Chemical base of the sulfo-phospho-vanilin reaction for estimation of total serum lipids. Clin. Chem. 18, 99-103. Kogan G. and Kocher A. (2007). Role of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in pig nutrition and health protection. Livest. Sci. 109, 161-165. Lien T.F., Horng Y.M. and Yang K.H. (1999). Performance, serum characteristics, carcase traits and lipid metabolism of broilers as affected by supplement of chromium picolinate. Br. Poult. Sci. 40, 357-363. Linder M.C. (1991). Nutrition and metabolism of the trace elements. Pp. 215-276 in NutritionalBiochemistry and Metabolism with Cclinical Applications. M.C. Linder, Ed. Elsevier, New York. Lomax A.R. and Calder P.C. (2009). Prebiotics, immune function, infectionand inflammation: a review of the evidence. Br. J. Nutr. 101, 633-658. McCarty M.F. (1993). Homologous physiological effects of phenformin and chromium picolinate. Med. Hypoth. 41, 316-324. NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA. Ohba H., Suzuki Y. and Ohba H. (1986). Enhancement of ribonucleic acid synthesis by chromium (III)-bound chromatin. J. Inorg. Biochem. 27, 179-188. Pelicano E.R.L., Souza P.A., Souza H.B.A., Leone l.F.R., Zeola N.M.B.L. and Boiago M.M. (2004). Productive traits of broiler chickens fed diets containing different growth promoters. Brazilian J. Poult. Sci. 6, 177-182. Rehman H., Vahjen W., Kohl-Parisini A., Ijaz A. and Zentek J. (2009). Influence of fermentable carbohydrates on the intestinal bacteria and enteropathogens in broilers. World's Poult. Sci. J. 65, 75-89. Riad S.A., Safaa H.M., Fatma R.M., Salwa S.S. and Hanan A.M. (2010). Influence of probiotic, prebiotic and / or yeast supplementation in broiler diets on the productivity, immune response and slaughter traits. J. Anim. Poult. Prod. 1, 45-60. Richmond W. (1973). Preparation and properties of bacterial cholesterol oxidase from Nocardiasp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin. Chem. 19, 1350-1356. Sahin K., KucukO., Sahin N. and Ozbey O. (2001). Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on egg production, egg quality and serum concentrations of insulin, corticosterone and some metabolites of Japanese quails. Nutr. Res. 21, 1315-1321. Sahin K., Sahin N. and Kucuka O. (2003). Effects of chromium and ascorbic acid supplementation on growth, carcass traits, serum metabolites and antioxidant status of broiler chickens reared at a high ambient temperature. Nutr. Res. 23, 225-238. Sahin K., Ozbey O., Onderci M., Cikim G. and Aysondu M.H. (2002). Chromium supplementation can alleviate negative effects of heat stress on egg production, egg quality and some serum metabolites of laying Japanese quail. J. Nutr. 132, 1265-1268. Sarica S., Corduk G., Yarim F., Yenisehirli G. and Karatas U. (2009). Effects of novel feed additives in wheat based diets on performance, carcass and intestinal tract characteristics of quail. South African J. Anim. Sci. 39, 144-157 SAS Institute. (1994). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 6. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. Shashidhara R.G. and Devegowda G. (2003). Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity. Poult. Sci. 82, 1319-1325. Silva V.K., Della T.J., Torres K.A.A., de Faria D.E., Hirota H.F. and Barbosa de Moraes M. (2009). Humoral immune response of broilers fed diets containing yeast extract and prebiotics in the prestarter phase and raised at different temperatures.J. Appl. Poult. Sci. 18, 530-540. Suksombat W. and Kanchanatawee S. (2005). Effects of various sources and levels of chromium on performance of broilers. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 18, 1628-1633. Tizard I.R., Carpenter R.H., McAnalley B.H. and Kemp M.C. (1989). The biological activities of mannans and related complex carbohydrates. Mol. Biother. 1, 290-296. Uyanik F., Eren A., Kocaoglu M. and Sahin N.(2005). Effects of dietary chromium supplementation on performance, carcass traits serum metabolites and tissue chromium levels of Japanese quails. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.103, 187-197. Van Der Zijpp A.J., Frankena J.B.K. and Nieuwland M.G.B. (1983). Genetic analysis of primary and secondary immune responses in the chicken. Poult. Sci. 62, 565-572. Vytautas S., Rasa B., Diana G., RamuneC., Vytautas S., Danius V. and Inga K. (2006). Influence of a prebiotic feed additive on some biochemical indices of blood and intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens. Liet. Moks. Akad. 4, 57-62. Yalçinkaya H., Gungori T., Bafialani M. and Erdem E. (2008). Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in broilers: effects on performance and blood biochemistry. Turkish J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 32, 43-48. Yalçinkaya I., Çinar M., Yildirim E., Erat S., Basalan M. and Güngör T. (2012). The effect of prebiotic and organic zinc alone and in combination in broiler diets on the performance and some blood parameters. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 11, 298-302. Yildiz A.Ö., Parlat S.S. and Yazgan O. (2004). The effects of organic chromiumsupplementation on production traits and some serum parameters of laying quails.Rev. Med.Vet. 155, 642-646.