The Effects of Different Levels of Untreated and TreatedGreen Grape Leaf on Performance, Egg Traits Quality and Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

Document Type : Research Article


Department of Animal Science, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran


This experiment was conducted to evaluation the effects of different levels of untreated and treated green grape leaf with urea on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens. In this experiment 192 Hy-Line (w-36) laying hens, 35 to 46 wk of age were divided in to 4 treatments with 4 replicates (12 birds per replicate) in a completely randomized design experiment. The treatments included: 1) control group, 2) group with 3% untreated green grape leaf, 3) group with 3% green grape leaf treated with 0.5% urea and 4) group treated with 3% green grape leaf treated with 1% urea. The best values for egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, feed price for per kilogram of egg production, eggshell weight, yolk weight and Haugh unit were in group 3. Using green grape leaf in diets reduced the levels of blood high density lipoprotein (HDL) and the lowest amount was obtained with 3% green grape leaf treated with 0.5% urea. The lowest count of white blood cells, heterophil and highest lymphocyte percentage and the low heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were noted in group 4. The overall results indicated that in laying hens, using 3% green grape leaf treated with urea in diets significantly improved their performance, egg traits and production cost, blood parameters.


Adejinmi O.O., Hamzat R.A., Raji A.M. and Owosibo A.O. (2011). Performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of broilers fed cocoa pod husks-based diets. Nigerians J. Anim. Sci. 13, 61-68.
Akiba Y. and Matsumoto T. (1978). Effect of force feeding and dietary cellulose on live lipid accumulation and lipid composition of live and plasma in growing chicks. J. Nutr. 108, 739-748.
Akinmutimi A.H., Ebe S.N. and Ewa E.I. (2000). The true metabolizable energy and protein content of physically and chemically processed Jack beans using Muscovy ducks. Pp. 151-153 in Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Nigerian Soci. Anim. Prod. (NSAP). Michael Okpara Univ. Agric., Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
AOAC. (2002). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical. Washington. DC.
Bhatnagar R., Kataria M. and Verna S.V.S. (1996). Effects of dietary Leuceana leaf meal on the performance and egg characteristics in White Leghorn hens. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 66(12), 1291-1294.
Bilgrami K.S. and Jeswal P. (1993). Control of citrinin caused nephrotoxicosis through aqueous leaf extract of Vitis vinifera, Mercuious corrossivus and cortisone. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 31, 482-484.
El-Deek A.A., El-Ansary E., Asar M., Hamdy M.A., Hamady S.M. and El-Nagar A. (1988). The nutritive value of casuarinas branches for laying hens. Egyptian Poult. Sci. 8, 280-294.
El-Deek A.A., El-Ansary E., Asar M., Hamdy M.A. and El-Halag M.S. (1995). Effects of feeding corn and cob, wheat bran and rice polishings in growing diets on growth and subsequent laying performance of Alexandira chickens. Pp. 304-311 in Proc. 1th Egyptian Hungarian Poult. Conf. Alexandira, Egypt.
Estrow K.A., Gregory J.F. and Damron B.L. (1982). Effect of dietary fiber on the bioavailability of folic acid mono-glutamate. J. Nutr. 112, 750-758.
Farkhoy M., Sigharody F. and Niknafas F. (1997). Poultry Breeding. CoasarPublication. Iran.
Farina L., Demey F. and Hardouin J. (1991). Production of termites in agricultural villages in Togo. Trop. Culture. 9(4), 181-187.
Gharib Naseri M.K., Navid Hamidi M. and Heidari A. (2005). Vasorelaxatory effect of Vitis vinifera extract on rat aorta. Iranian J. Pharm. Res. 2, 93-99.
GharibNaseri M.K., Zarei M. and Amirei O. (2006). Spasmolytic effect of Vitis vinifera leaf extract on rat colon. Daru. 14, 203-207.
Gross W.B. and Sigel P.S. (1983). Evaluation of heterophile to lymphocyte ratio asmeasure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis. 27, 972-979.
Kiesewetter H., Koscielncy J., Kalus U., Vix J.M., Peil H., Petrini O. Van Toor B.S. and deMey C. (2000). Efficacy of orally administered extract of red vin leaves As 195 (Vitis vinifera) in choronic venous insufficiency (stages I- II). A randomized, double-blind-placebo-controllled trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 50, 109-117.
Medugu C.I., Saleh B., Igwebuike J.U. and Ndirmbita R.L. (2012). Strategies to improve the utilizing of tannin-rich feed materials by poultry. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 16(6), 417-423.
Monagas M., Hernandez Led B., Gomez Condoves C. and Bartolome B. (2006). Commercial dietary ingredients fromVitis vinifera. leaves and grape skins: antioxidant and chemical characterization. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 319-327.
Mitaru B.N., Reichert R.D. and Blair R. (1983). Improvement of the nutritive value of high tannin sorghums for broiler chickens by high moisture storage (reconstitution). Poult. Sci. 62, 2065-2072.
Nazifi S. (1997). Hematology and Clinical Biochemistry of Birds. Shiraz University Publication. Shiraz, Iran.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry.9th Ed. National AcademyPress, Washington, DC.
Oige A., Odunsi A.A., Akinlade J.A., Ojedapo L.O., Ameen S.A., Aderinola O.A. and Arafiu T. (2006). Gliricidia leaf meal in layer's diet: effect on performance, nutrient digestibility and economy of production. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 5(6), 483-486.
Onyimonyi A.E., Olabode A. and Okeke G.C. (2009). Performance and economic characteristics of broilers fed varying dietary levels of neem leaf meal (Azadirachta indica). Int. J. Poult. Sci. 8, 256-259.
Osei S.A., Opoku R.S. and Atuahene C.C. (1990). Gliricidia leaf meal as an ingredient in layer diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 29, 303-308.
SAS Institute. (2005). SAS Users guide: Statistics. Version 9.12. SAS InstituteInc., Cary,NC.
Talaat Enass A.M. (2003). The effect of feeding different treated blue bush shrub (Kochia indica) during pullet development period on subsequent laying hen performance. MS Thesis. Facul. Agric. Alexandria Univ., Egypt.
Tayer M., Nobakht A. and Pishjangh J. (2012). The effects of different levels of green grape (Vitis vinifera) leaves on performance, carcass traits, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of broilers. Int. Res. J. Appl. Bas. Sci. 3(1), 103-111.
Sayiedpiran S.A., Nobakht A. and Khodaei S. (2011). The effects of using of probiotic, organic acid and blends of some medicinal herbs on performance, egg quality, blood biochemical and immunity parameters of laying hens. Vet. J. Islamic Azad Univ. Tabriz. 5, 1111-1122.
Sturkie P.D. (1995). Avian Physiology. Springer Verlag. New York.
Udedibie A.B.I. and Nkwocha C.O. (1990). Comparative study of jackbean (Cancavalia ensiformis) and sward bean (Canavalia gladiata) as protein supplements for young broiler chicks. Nigerian Agric. J. 24, 7-14.
Udedibie A.B.I., Esonu B.O., Obaji C.N. and Duruna C.S. (1994). Dry urea treatment prior to toasting as a method of improving the nutritive value of Jackbeans (Canavalia ensiformis) for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48, 335-345.
Valizadeh M. and Moghaddam M. (1994). Experimental Designs in Agriculture. Pishtaz Elem Publication. Iran.
Vargas R.E. and Naber E.C. (1984). Relationship between dietary fiber and nutrient density and its effect on energy balance, egg yolk cholesterol and hens performance. J. Nutr. 114, 645-652.
Yassein S.A., El-Ghamry A.A. and El-Samee L.D. (1998). Effect of replacing Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania aegyptica for soybean meal on hen performance and egg quality. Egyptian Poult. Sci. 18, 225-239.
Zargari A. (1990). Herbal Medicines. Publication of Tehran University. Tehran, Iran.