Improving the Nutritional Value of Sunflower Meal by Electron Beam and Gamma Ray Irradiations

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj, Iran


This research was performed to compare electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kilo Gray (kGy) on ruminal degradation kinetics and in vitro digestibility of sunflower meal (SFM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects )P<0.05( on dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) degradability parameters of SFM. Effective ruminal degradability (ERD) of DM was lower in EB and GR irradiated SFM than in unirradiated SFM) P<0.05(. GR treatment at a dose of 75 kGy decreased ERD of CP compared to control )P<0.05(. ERD of CP was not affected by EB )P>0.05(. Irradiation processing caused a decrease in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation significantly )P<0.05(. GR irradiation was more effective than EB irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA.In vitro CP digestibility of EB and GR irradiated SFM was improved )P<0.05(. This study, based on in situ andin vitro measures, showed that EB and GR processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of SFM.


Abu J.O., Muller K., Duodu K.G. and Minnaar A. (2006). Gamma irradiation of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata) flours and pastes: effects on functional, thermal and molecular properties of isolated proteins. Food Chem. 95, 138-147.
Al-Masri M. (1999). In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 50, 295-301.
AOAC. (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Bhat R., Sridhar K.R., Young C.C., Bhagwath A.A. and Ganesh S. (2008). Composition and functional properties of raw and electron beam-irradiated Mucunapruriens seeds. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 43, 1338-1351.
Choi J.I., Kim J.H., Lee K.W., Song B.S., Yoon Y., Byun M.W. and Lee J.W. (2009). Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiations on the degradation of carboxymethylcellulose. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 26, 1825-1828.
Cies´la K., Roos Y. and Gluszewski W. (2000). Denaturation processes in gamma irradiated proteins studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 58, 233-243.
Ebrahimi S.R., Nikkhah A., Sadeghi A.A. and Raisali G. (2009). Chemical composition, secondry compounds, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein digestibility of gamma irradiated canola seed. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 151, 184-193.
Fombang E.N., Taylor J.R.N., Mbofung C.M.F. and Minnaar A. (2005). Use of ɣ-irradiation to alleviate the protein poor diges-tibility of sorghum porridge. Food Chem. 91, 695-703.
Forooshani M.J. (2010). Effect of electron beam irradiation on dry matter and crude protein degradability of soybean and canola meal and performance of lactating Holstein cows. MS Thesis.  Isfahan Univ., Iran.
Gaber M.H. (2005). Effect of ɣ-irradiation on the molecular properties of bovine serum albumin. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2, 203-206.
Ghanbari F., Ghoorchi T., Shawrang P., Mansouri H. and Torbati-Nejad N.M. (2012). Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81, 672-678.
Holm N.W. and Berry R.J. (1970). Manual on Radiation Dosimetry. Dekker, New York, USA.
Lacroix M., Le T.C., Ouattara B., Yu H., Letendre M. and Sabato S.F. (2002). Use of ɣ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 63, 827-832.
Lee S.L., Lee M.S. and Song K.B. (2005). Effect of gamma-irradiation on the physicochemical properties of gluten films. Food Chem. 92, 621-625.
Mani V. and Chandra P. (2003). Effect of feeding irradiated soybean on nutrient intake, gidestibility and N-balance in goats. Small Rum. Res. 48, 77-81.
Molina Alcaide E., Yanez Ruiz D.R., Moumen A. and Martin Garcia A.I. (2003). Ruminal degradability and in vitro intestinal digestibility of sunflower meal and in vitro digestibility of olive by-products supplemented with urea or sunflower meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 110, 3-15.
Moshtaghi Nia S.A. and Ingals J.R. (1995). Influence of heat treatment on ruminal and intestinal disappearance of amnio acids from canola meal. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 1552-1560.
Mostafa M.M. (1987). Nutritional aspects of thermal and irradiation processing of peanut kernels and their oil. Food Chem. 26, 31-45.
Murray R.K., Granner D.K., Mayes P.A. and Rodwell V.W. (2003). Harper’s Biochemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.
NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Orskov E.R. and McDonald I. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92, 499-503.
Salamatdoust Nobar R., Chamani M., Sadeghi A.A. and Aghazadeh A.M. (2009). Determination of degradability of treated soybean meal and its protein fractions. African J. Biotechnol. 8, 98-102.
SAS Institute. (2003). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
Shawrang P. (2006). An investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal and postruminal disappearance of feedstuffs using nylon bag and SDS-PAGE techniques. Ph D. Thesis. Tehran Univ., Tehran, Iran.
Shawrang P., Nikkhah A., Zare-Shahneh A., Sadeghi A.A., Raisali G. and Moradi-Shahrbabak M.M. (2007). Effects of gamma irradiation on protein degradation of soybean meal in the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134, 140-151.
Shawrang P., Nikkhah A., Zare-Shahneh A., Sadeghi A.A., Raisali G. and Moradi-Shahrbabak M.M. (2008). Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 77, 918-922.
Song H.P., Kim B., Jung S., Choe J.H., Yun H., Kim Y.J. and Cheorun J. (2009). Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into salted, seasoned, and fermented oyster. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 42, 1320-1324.
Taghinejad-Roudbaneh M. (2008). Study of the effects of physical processing (gamma irradiation, microwaving and roasting) on protein degradability of soybean and cottonseed. MS Thesis. Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran, Iran.
Taghinejad-Roudbaneh M., Ebrahimi S.R., Azizi S. and Shawrang P. (2010). Effect of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 79, 1264-1269.
Tilly J.M.A. and Terry R.A. (1963). A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops.J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 18, 104-111.
Tuncer S.D. and Sacakli P. (2003). Rumen degradability characteristics of xylose treated canola and soybean meals. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 107, 211-218.
Yoruk M.A., Aksu T., Gul M. and Bolat D. (2006). The effect of soybean meal treated with formaldehyde on amount of protein in the rumen and absorption of amino acid from small intestines. Turkish J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 30, 457-463.