The Role of Dietary Fat to Produce Chicken Meat as a Functional Food: A Review

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Genomics and Animal, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (ABRI), Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

3 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Production of chicken meat is an important branch of food industry. Generally, poultry meat farmers aim to produce birds with superior body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other parameters that must to be taken into account such as lower body fat deposition and improvement in the nutrient composition of products corresponding to consumer requirements. Nowadays, extra focus has been given to designing and enrichment foods as functional foods, with components that have beneficial effects on human wellbeing. In definition, functional foods contain particular nutrients and / or non-nutrients that have an effect on human health, beyond what is usually known as nutritional effects. There are several compounds in foods that improve consumer’s health status. Among them the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, n-6 and n-3 series) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are the most functional and bioactives components of lipids. Chicken meat has been a common objective of nutritional modification because the absorbed dietary fatty acids from the small intestine directly enter into the chicken tissue lipids. This paper tries to review the recent findings in the area of chicken meat enrichment using dietary fats.

Keywords


Ackman R.G., Ratnayake W.M.N. and Olson B. (1988). The “basic” fatty acid composition of Atlantic fish oils: potential similarities useful for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids by urea complexation. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 65, 136-138.
Ajuyah A.O., Hardin R.T. and Sim J.S. (1993). Studies on canola seed in turkey grower diet: effects on n-3 fatty acid composition of breast meat, breast skin and selected organs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73, 177-181.
Arakawa K. and Sagai M. (1986). Species differences in lipid peroxide levels in lung tissue and investigation of their determining factors. Lipids. 21, 769-775.
Arterburn L.M., Hall E.B. and Oken H. (2006). Distribution, interconversion and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans. Am. J. Clinl. Nutr. 83, 1467-1476.
Banni S., Day B.W., Evans R.W., Corongiu F.P. and Lombardi B.B. (1995). Detection of conjugated diene isomers of linoleic acid in liver lipids of rat's feda choline-devoid diet indicates that the diet does not cause lipoperoxidation. J. Nutr. Biochem. 6, 281-289.
Barceló-Coblijn G. and Murphy E.J. (2009). α-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining n-3 fatty acid levels. Prog. Lipid. Res. 48, 355-374.
Barton L., Marounek M., Kudrna V., Bureš D. and Zahrádková R. (2007). Growth performance and fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from Limousin and Charolais heifers fed extruded linseed. Meat Sci. 76, 517-523.
BenattiP., Peluso G. and Nicolai N.R. (2004). Polyunsaturated fatty acids: biochemical, nutritional and epigenetic properties. Am. Coll. Nutr. 23, 281-302.
Betti M., Schneider B.L., Wismer W.V., Carney V.L., Zuidhof M.J. and Renema R.A. (2009). Omega-3 enriched broiler meat: 2. Functional properties, oxidative stability and consumer acceptance. Poult. Sci. 88, 1085-1095.
Bezard J., Blond J.P., Bernard A. and Clouet P. (1994). The metabolism andavailability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues. Rep. Nutr. Dev. 34, 539-568.
Bretillon L., Chardigny J.M., Gregoire O., Berdeaux O. and Sebedio J.L. (1999). Effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the heatic microsomal desaturation activities in vitro. Lipids. 34, 956-969.
Burdge G. (2004). α-linolenic acid metabolism in men and women: nutritional and biological implications. Current. Opinion. Clin. Nutr. Metab. Care. 7, 137-144.
Calder P.C. (1997). n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 41, 203-234.
Cantor A.H., Decker E.A. and Collins V.P. (2000). Fatty Acids in Poultry and Egg Products. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
CFIA. (2003). Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Guide to Food Labelling and Advertising. Available at:                               a http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/fssa/labeti/guide/ch7be.shtml#7.19.
Chin S.F., Liu W., Storkson J.M., Ha Y.L. and Pariza M.W. (1992). Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. J. Food Com. Anal. 5, 185-197.
Ching K.C. (2000). Fatty Acids in Foods and Their Health Implication. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, USA.
Choi Y., Kim Y.C., Han Y.B., Park Y., Pariza M.W. and Ntambi J.M. (2000). The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid down regulatestearoly-CoA desaturase gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J. Nutr. 130, 1920-1924.
Cook H.W. (1991). Fatty acid desaturation and chain elongation in eukaryotes. Pp. 141-169 in Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. D.E. Vance and J. Vance, Eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holland.
Crespo N. and Esteve-Garcia E. (2002). Nutrient and fatty acid deposition in broilers fed different dietary fatty acid profiles. Poult. Sci. 81, 1533-1542.
Darshan S. (2001). Modulation of human immune and inflammatory responses by dietary fatty acids. Nutrition. 17, 669-673.
Du M. and Ahn D.U. (2002). Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the growth rate of live birds and on the abdominal fat content and quality of broiler meat. Poult. Sci81, 428-433.
Du M., Ahn D.U. and Sell J.L. (1999). Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the composition of egg yolk lipids. Poult. Sci. 78, 1639-1645.
Du M., Ahn D.U. and Sell J.L. (2001). Volatile profiles and lipid oxidation of irradiated cooked chicken meat from laying hens fed with diets containing conjugated linoleic acid. Poult. Sci. 80, 235-241.
Eder K., Slomma N. and Becker K. (2002). Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid suppresses the desaturation of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acids in HepG2 cells. J. Nutr. 132, 1115-1121.
Field C.J. (2003). Fatty acids / dietary importance. Pp. 2317-2324 in Encyclopaedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. B. Caballero, Ed. Oxford, UK.
Fogerty A.C., Ford G.L. and Svoronos D. (1988). Octadeca-9, 11-dienoic acid in foodstuffs and in the lipids of human blood and breast milk. Nutr. Repo. Int. 38, 937-944.
Fritsche J. and Steinhart C. (1998). Amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in German foods and evaluation of daily intake. Zeitsch. Leben. Untersuch. Forsch. 206, 77-82.
Garg M.L., Sebokoba E., Wierzbicki A.A., Thomson A.B.R. and Clandin M.T. (1988). Differential effects of dietary linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in rat tissue. Lipids. 23, 847-852.
Grashorn M.A. (2007). Functionality of poultry meat. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 16, 99-106.
Gebauer S.K., Psota T.L., Harris W.S. and Kris-Etherton P.M. (2006). n-3 fatty acid dietary recommendations and food sources to achieve essentiality and cardiovascular benefits. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83(6), 1526-1535.
Goldman H. (1994). Reducing Overall Fat Intake. Baltimore: HTP Science Publications.
Gonzalez-Esquerra R. and Leeson S. (2001). Alternatives for enrichment of eggs and chicken meat with n-3 fatty acids. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 81, 295-305.
Gunstone F.D., Harwood J.L. and Padley F.B. (1994). The Lipid Handbook. Chapman and Hall, London.
Harris W.S., Poston W.C. and Haddock C.K. (2007). Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events. Atherosclerosis. 193, 1-10.
Holman R.T. (1986). Nutritional and biochemical evidences of acyl interaction with respect to essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prog. Lipid. Res. 25, 29-39.
Holmer G. and Beare-Rogers J.L. (1985). Linseed oil and marine oil as sources (n-3) fatty acids in rat heart. Nutr. Res. 5, 1011-1014.
Hulan H.W., Ackman R.G., Ratnayake W.M.N. and Proudfoot F.G. (1988). Omega-3 fatty acid levels and performance of broilers chickens fed redfish meal or redfish oil. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68, 533-547.
Ip C., Singh M., Thompson H.J. and Scimeca J.A. (1994). Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses mammary carcinogenesis and proliferative activity of the mammary gland in the rat. Cancer Res. 54, 1212-1215.
Jiang J., Wolk A. and Vessby B. (1999). Relation between the intake of milk fat and the occurrence of conjugated linoleic acid in human adipose tissue. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70, 21-27.
Klasing K.C. (1998). Nutritional modulation of resistance to infectious diseases. Poult. Sci. 77, 1119-1125.
Komprda T., Zelenka J., Fajmonova E., Fialova M. and Kladroba D. (2005). Arachidionic acid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in meat of selected poultry and fish species in relation to dietary fat sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 6804-6812.
Lee K.N., Pariza M.W. and Ntambi J.M. (1998). Conjugated linoleic acid decreases hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNA expression. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 248, 817-821.
Li Y. and Watkins B.A. (1998). Conjugated linoleic acids alter bone fatty acid composition and reduce ex vivo prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in rats fed n-6 or n-3 fatty acids. Lipids. 33, 417-425.
Lopez-Ferrer S., Baucells M.D., Barroeta A.C. and Grashorn M.A. (2001). n-3 enrichment of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long-chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their influence on meat quality: fish oil. Poult. Sci. 80, 741-732.
Manilla H., Husveth A.F. and Nemeth K. (1999). Effects of dietary fat origin on the performance of broiler chickens and composition of selected tissues. Acta. Agraria. Kaposváriensis. 3, 47-57.
McCue M.D., Amitai O., Khozin-Goldberg I., McWilliams S.R. and Pinshow B. (2009). Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on fatty acid profiles of polar and neutral lipid tissue fractions in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 154, 165-172.
Miller D., Leong K.C. and Smith P. (1969). Effect of feeding and withdrawal of menhaden oil of broiler tissues’ fatty acid composition and flavor. J. Food Sci. 34, 136-141.
Mohrhauer H., Christiansen K., Gan M.V., Deubig M. and Holman R.T. (1967). Chain elongation of linoleic acid and its inhibition by other fatty acids in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 242, 4507-4514.
Neuringer M. and Connor W.E. (1986). n-3 fatty acids in the brain and retina: evidence for their essentiality. Nutr. Rev. 44, 285-294.
NRC. (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA.
Ntambi J.M. (1999). Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase by polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. J. Lipid. Res. 40, 1549-1558.
Park Y., Albright K.J., Liu W., Storkson J.M., Lin M.E., Cook M.E. and Pariza M.W. (1999). Changes in body composition in mice during feeding and withdrawal of conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids. 34, 243-248.
Park Y., Storkson J.M., Ntambi J.M., Cook M.E., Sih C.J. and Pariza M.W. (2000). Inhibition of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and its derivatives. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1486, 285-292.
Phetteplace H.W. and Watkins B.A. (1989). Effects of various n-3 sources on fatty acid composition in chicken tissues. J. Food Compos. Anal. 2, 104-117.
Pisulewski P.M. (2005). Nutritional potential for improving meat quality in poultry. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 23, 303-315.
Pisulewski P.M. and Kostogrys R.B. (2003). Functional properties of foods of animal origin and methods of their assessment. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 53, 65-73.
Pisulewski P.M., Szymczyk B. and Kostogrys R.B. (2002). Health-promoting properties of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and perspectives of production of CLA-enriched foods of animal origin. Zywienie Czlowieka. 109, 87-103.
Ratnayake W.M.N., Ackman R.G. and Hulan H.W. (1989). Effect of redfish meal enriched diets on the taste and the n-3 PUFA of 42-day-old broiler chickens. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 49, 59-74.
Ricardo U. and Valenzuela A. (2000). Marine oils: the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition. 16, 7-8.
Royan M., Meng G.Y., Othman F., Sazili A.Q. and Hanachi P. (2013). Effects of dietary combination of conjugated linoleic acid with fish oil or soybean oil on fatty acid composition of broiler meat. Arch. Geflügelk. 77, 189-198.
Russo G.L. (2009). Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: From biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem. Pharmacol. 77, 937-946.
Sanchez G. and Malo M. (1995). Recomendaciones nutricional esestablecidas en la union europae. Rev. Nutr. Diet. 3, 7-12.
Sargent J.R., Tocher D.R. and Bell J.G. (2002). The lipids. Pp. 181-257 in Fish Nutrition. J.E. Halver and R.W. Hardy, Eds. Academic Press, San Diego.
Sealls W., Gonzalez M., Brosnan M.J., Black P.N. and Di Russo C.C. (2008). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2 omega-6 and C18:3 omega-3) do not suppress hepatic lipogenesis. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1781, 406-614.
Sirri F., Minelli G., Iaffaldano N., Tallarico N. and Franchini A. (2003). Oxidative stability and quality traits of n-3 PUFA enriched chicken meats. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 2, 450-452.
Sisk M.B., Hausman D.B., Martin R.J. and Azain M.J. (2001). Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces adiposity in len but not obese Zucker rats. J. Nutr. 131, 1668-1674.
Stevens L. (1996). Avian biochmistry and Molecular Biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Suksombat W., Boonmee T. and Lounglawan P. (2007). Effects of various levels of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on fatty acid content and carcass composition of broilers. Poult. Sci. 86, 318-324.
Trugo N.M.F. and Torress A.G. (2003). Fats / requirements. Pp. 2280-2281 in Encyclopaedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition. B. Caballero, Ed. Oxford, UK: Elswvier Sciences Ltd.
Tuncer S.D., Asti R., Coskun B., Tekes M.A. and Erer H. (1987). The effects of different energy sources on fattening performance, abdomen fat accumulation and liver fat in broiler. I. The effects of fattening performance and abdomen fat accumulation. University of Selçuk. J. Vet. Facult. 3, 25-40.
USDA. (1988). United States Department of Agriculture. Food and the Consumer. National Food Review. Washington, DC., USA.
Von Schacky C. and Harris W.S. (2007).Cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Cardio. Res. 73, 310-315.
Wang Y.M., Nagao K., Ujino Y., Sakata K., Higa K., Inoue N. and Yanagita T. (2005). Short-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid does not induce hepatic steatosis in c57BL-6J mice. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 51, 440-444.
Watkins B.A. (1995). Biochemical and physiological aspects of polyunsaturates. Poult. Avian. Boil. Rev. 6, 1-18.
Williams C.T. and Buck C.L. (2010). Using fatty acids as dietary tracers in seabird trophic ecology: theory, application and limitations. J. Ornithol. 151, 531-543.
Zanini S.F., Colnago G.L., Pessotti B.M.S., Bastos M.R., Casagrande F.P. and Lima V.R. (2006). Body fat of broiler chickens fed diets with two fat sources and conjugated linoleic acid. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 5, 241-246.
Zanini S.F., Vicente E., Colnago G.L., Pessotti B.M.S. and Silva M.A. (2008). Manipulation of the fatty acids composition of poultry meat and giblets by dietary inclusion of two oil sources and conjugated linoleic acid. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 60, 1388-1398.