Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Receive Date: 11 June 2014,
Revise Date: 04 August 2014,
Accept Date: 14 August 2014
In this study, the nutritive values of treated Walnut hull by Neurospora sitophila were evaluated. The chemical composition of samples was evaluated by laboratory analysis.In vitrodigestibility experiment was done to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter and also digestible organic matter in dry matter (DOMD) to estimate the metabolizable energy (ME) content oftreated Walnut hull. In addition, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance of samples were determined by In-Situ method at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after incubation and their kinetics were described using the equation P= a + b(1−e−ct). The nutritive value index (NIV) of samples was calculated using the equation: NIV= a + 0.4b + 200c. The collected data was analyzed in a completely randomized design. The content of tannin and phenol in walnut hull decreased significantly by processing (P<0.05). No significant effect was seen on degradability parameters and nutritive value index. Digestibility coefficient of dry matter, organic matter, digestible organic matter in dry matter and metabolizable energy of treated walnut hull were significantly (P<0.05) lower than untreated Walnut hull.
AFRC. (1993). Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. Ammerman C.B. and Henry P.R. (1991). Citrus and vegetable products for ruminant animals. Pp. 103-110 in Proc. Alternative Feeds for Dairy and Beef Cattle, St Louis, MO. AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. Dashti M., Rouzbehan Y. and Shojaosadati S.A. (2009). Effect of Neurospora sitophila on chemical composition, digestibility and degradability of beet pulp. Iranian J.Anim.Sci. l4, 1-12. Dayani O., Rashidian A. and Tahmasbi R. (2013). Effect of Neurospora sitophila on chemical composition, physical characteristics and digestibility of treated date tops fronds. J. Anim. Sci. Res. 23(2), 181-187. Durand M., Dumay C., Beaumatin P. and Morel M.T. (1988). Use of the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) to compare microbial digestion of various by-products. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 22, 197-204. Ghiasi A. (2010). Determination of digestibility and degradation of treated grape pomace by Neurospora sitophila using in vitro andin situ methods. MS Thesis. Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman, Iran. Griffiths B. and Done S.H. (1991). Citrinin as a possible cause of the purities, pyrexia, haemorrhagic syndrome in cattle. Vet. Record. 129, 113-117. Madadi-nuei A. (1997). Enrichment of beet pulp by solid state fermentation methode. MS Thesis. Tarbiat Modares Univ., Tehran, Iran. Makkar H.P.S. (2003). Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animal adaptation to tannins and strategies to overcome detrimental effect of feeding tannin-rich feed: areview. Small Rumin. Res. 49, 241-256. Makkar H.P.S., Blummel M., Borowy N.K. and Becker K. (1993). Gravi-metric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J. Sci. Food Agric. 61, 161-165. McDonald P., Edwards R.A., Greenhalgh J.F.D. and Morgan C.A. (1995). Animal Nutrition. Published by Prentice Hall, New York. Nazem K., Rouzbehan Y. and Shojaosadati S.A. (2008). The nutritive value of citrus pulp (lemon and orange) treated with Neurospora sitophila. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resour. 12, 495-506. Orskov E.R. (1992). Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Academic Press, INC, San Diego, USA. Orskov E.R. and McDonald P. (1979). The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92, 499-503. Rashidian A. (2011). Determination of digestibility and degradation of treated date tops fronds by Neurospora sitophila using in vitro and in situ methods. MS Thesis. Shahid Bahonar Univ., Kerman, Iran. Salamat F., Keivani S., Emami M., Amin G. and Adimi P. (2006). Effect of walnut hull on growth inhibitory of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans by broth dilution method.J. Med. Sci. Islamic Azad Univ. 16(4), 201-205. SAS Institute. (2005). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 8. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA. Shadzi S. (1991). Anti-fungal effects of walnut. J. Med. Sci. Isfahan Univ.47, 121-125. Shojaosadati S.A., Faraidouni R., Madadi-Nouei A. and Mohamadpour I. (1999). Protein enrichment of lignocellulosic substrates by solid state fermentation using Neurospora sitophila. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 27, 73-87. Tilley J.M.A. and Terry R.A. (1963). A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassl Soc. 18, 104-111. Vahabzadeh M. (2011). Determination of digestibility and degradation of treated pistachio peel by Neurospora sitophila using in vitro and in situ methods. MS Thesis. Islamic Azad Univ., Saveh, Iran. Van SoestP.J.(1994). Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.