Effect of Dietary Crude Protein Level on UT-B Expression and Nitrogen Efficiency in Growing Baluchi Male Lambs Fed Low or High Concentrate Diets

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IranDepartment of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

An experiment was carried out to evaluate how interactions between forage to concentrate ratio and dietary crude protein level may alter nitrogen efficiency and UT-B expression in growing Baluchi male lambs. Four Baluchi male lambs [30 ± 2 kg BW] were used in a 4 × 4 latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The treatments fed forage: concentrate [FC; DM basis] ratios of 45:55 low concentrate (LC) or 25:75 high concentrate (HC) with dietary levels of CP of 14 low protein (LP) or 18% high protein (HP) [CP, DM basis]. Dry matter intake increased as dietary concentrate level increased. Treatments, dietary CP content and F: C ratio had significant effect on CP intake. Increasing dietary N content of the diet increased dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. Forage to concentrate ratio had a significant effect on neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and OM digestibility. Treatments had significant effect on the CP, NDF and OM digestibility. There were an interaction between dietary CP content and F: C ratio on the ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, acetate: propionate ratio and BUN concentration. Except ruminal pH, all ruminal fermentation and blood metabolitefactors were affected by both dietaryCP content and F: C ratio in trial.Treatments had significant influence on the NI (g/d) and urinary N excretion (g/d) (% of N intake). Also, both dietary CP content and F: C ratio had significant effect on NI. The lambs consume high crude protein treatments tended to have greater urinary N excretion (g/d) than those consume low crude protein treatments. The F: C ratio had a significant effect on urinary N excretion (g/d). Approximately 6.56 times more UT-B was expressed by the rumen ventral sac for lambs on the treatments contain 18% crude protein relative to those on the treatments contain 14% crude protein. In conclusion this study shows that changes in characteristic of the diet produce significant changes in UT-B urea transporter expression within the ovine rumen. Changing urea entry into the GIT via dietary regulation of UT-B could serve as important mechanism to maintenance of nitrogen balance and increase nitrogen efficiency in Baluchi growing lambs. Our findings suggest that the dietary regulation of urea transporters plays a major role in altering urea entry into the gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords


Abdoun K., Stumpff F., Rabbani I. and Martens H. (2010). Modulation of urea transport across sheep rumen epitheliumin vitro by SCFA and CO2. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 298, 190-202.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis. Vol. I. 15th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Archimède H., Sauvant D., Hervieu J., Ternois F. and Poncet C. (1996). Effects of the nature of roughage and concentrate and their proportion on ruminal characteristics of non-lactating goats, consequences on digestive interactions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 58, 267-282.
Bae D.H., Welch J.G. and Smith A.M. (1979). Forage intake and rumination by sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 49, 1292-1299.
Bunting L.D., Boiling J.A., Mackown C.T. and Muntifering R.B. (1987). Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen metabolism in lambs: studies using 15 N nitrogen. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 855-867.
Bunting L.D., Boling J.A., MacKown C.T. and Davenport G.M. (1989). Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen metabolism in the growing bovine: II. Diffusion into and utilization of endogenous urea nitrogen in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 820-826.
Chantiratikul A., Chumpawadee S., Kanchanamayoon W. and Chantiratikul P. (2009). Effect of dietary protein on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in thai-indigenous heifers. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8, 297-300.
Chapaval L., Melotti L., Junior P.R., Olivindo C.S. and Rego J.P.A. (2008). Roughage / concentrate ratio on ruminal ammonia concentration, pH and volatile fatty acids in crossbred dairy cows. Revista Bras Saúde Prod. Anim. 9, 18-28.
Chase C.C., Larsen J.R., Hammond R.E. and Randel R.D. (1993). Effect of dietary energy on growth and reproductive characteristics of Angus and Senepol bulls during summer in Florida. Theriogenology. 40, 43-67.
Chen S., Paengkoum P., Xia X. and Na-Lumpang P. (2010). Effects of dietary protein on ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization and crude protein maintenance in growing Thaiindigenous beef cattle fed rice straw as roughage. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9, 2396-2400.
Currier T.A., Bohnert D.W., Falck S.J., Schauer C.S. and Bartle S.J. (2004). Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea and biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: II. Effects on site of digestion and microbial efficiency in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82, 1518-1527.
Drouillard J.S., Klopfenstein T.J., Britton R.A., Bauer M.L., Gramlich S.M., Wester T.J. and Ferrell C.L. (1991). Growth, body composition, and visceral organ mass and metabolism in lambs during and after metabolizable protein or net energy restriction. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 3357-3375.
Engelhardt W.V., Hinderer S. and Wipper E. (1978). Factors influencing the endogenous urea-N secretion and utilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Pp. 401-412 in Ruminant Digestion and Feed Evaluation. D.F. Osbourn, D.E. Beever and D.J. Thomson, Eds. ARC, London.
Fenton R.A., Chou C.L., Stewart G.S., Smith C.P. and Knepper M.A. (2004). Urinary concentrating defect in mice with selective deletion of phloretin-sensitive urea transporters in the renal collecting duct. Pp. 7469-7474 in Proc. National Acad. Sci., USA.
Fluharty F.L. and McClure K.E. (1997). Effect of dietary energy intakes and protein concentration on performance and visceral organ mass in lambs.J. Anim. Sci. 75, 604-610.
Hammond A.C. (1983). Effect of dietary protein level, ruminal protein solubility and time after feeding on plasma urea nitrogen and the relationship of plasma urea nitrogen to other ruminal and plasma parameters. J. Anim. Sci. 57(1), 435.
Hristov A.N., Ropp J.K., Grandeen K.L., Abedi S., Etter R.P., Melgar A. and Foley A.E. (2005). Effect of carbohydrate source on ammonia utilization in lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 83, 408-421.
Huntington G.B. (1989). Hepatic urea synthesis and site and rate of urea removal from blood of beef steers fed alfalfa hay or a high concentrate diet. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69, 215-223.
Ibrahimi Khoram Abadi E., Tahmasbi A.M., Danesh Mesgaran M. and Valizadeh R. (2011). Influence of protein sources with different degradability on performance, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and protozoal population in lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 10(1), 43-49.
Kennedy P.M. and Milligan L.P. (1980). The degradation and utilization of endogenous urea in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants: a review. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60, 205-221.
Kumar S., Dagar S.S., Sirohi S.K., Padhyay R.C. and Puniya A.K. (2013). Microbial profiles, in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility based on various ratios of roughage to concentrate. Ann. Microb. 63, 541-545.
Lapierre H. and Lobley G.E. (2001). Nitrogen recycling in the ruminant: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 223-236.
Lee M.R.F., Tweed J.K.S., Dewhurst R.J. and Scollan N.D. (2006). Effect of forage: concentrate ratio on ruminal metabolism and duodenal flow of fatty acids in beef steers. Anim. Sci. 82, 31-40.
Legleiter L.R., Mueller A.M. and Kerley M.S. (2005). Level of supplemental protein does not influence the ruminally undegradable protein value. J. Anim. Sci. 83, 863-870.
Lindberg J.E. (1983). Factor affecting predictions of rumen degradability using the nylon bag (in sacco) technique and a comparison between in vivo and in sacco degradability measurements. Ph D. Thisis. Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci. Uppsala, Sweden.
Ludden P.A., Stohrer R.M., Austin K.J., Atkinson R.L., Belden E. and Harlow H.J. (2009). Effect of protein supplementation on expression and distribution of urea transporter B in lambs fed low-quality forage. J. Anim. Sci. 87, 1354-1365.
Maekawa M., Beauchemin K.A. and Christensen D.A. (2002). Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 1165-1175.
Manso T., Mantecon A.R., Giraldez F.J., Lavin P. and Castro T. (1998). animal performance and chemical body composition of lambs fed diets with different protein supplements. Small Rumin. Res. 29, 185-191.
Marini J.C., Klein J.D., Sands J.M. and Van Amburgh M.E. (2004). Effect of nitrogen intake on nitrogen recycling and urea transporter abundance in lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 82, 1157-1164.
Marini J.C. and Van Amburgh M.E. (2003). Nitrogen metabolism and recycling in Holstein heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 81, 545-552.
Mertens D.R. (1997). Dietary fiber components: Relationship to the rate and extent of ruminal digestion. Fed. Pro. 36, 87-94.
Miettinen H. and Huhtanen P. (1996). Effects of the ratio of ruminal propionic acid to butyrate on milk yield and blood metabolites in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79(5), 851-861.
Misra A.K. and Thakur S.S. (2001). Effect of dietary supplementation of sodium salt of isobutyric acid on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization in a wheat straw based low protein diet fed to crossbred cattle. Asian-austral J. Anim. Sci. 14, 479-484.
NRC. (1985). Nutrient Requirement of Sheep. 6th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Promkot C. and Wanapat M. (2005). Effect of level of crude protein and use of cottonseed meal in diets containing cassava chips and rice straw for lactating dairy cows. Asian-australas J. Anim. Sci. 18, 502-511.
Rémond D., Chaise J.P., Delval E. and Poncet C. (1993). Net transfer of urea and ammonia across the ruminal wall of sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 71, 2785-2792.
Ribeiro S.S., Vasconcelos J.T., Morais M.G., Itavo C.B.C.F. and Franco G.L. (2011). Effects of ruminal infusion of a slow-release polymer-coated urea or conventional urea on apparent nutrient digestibility, in situ degradability and rumen parameters in cattle fed low quality hay. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 164, 53-61.
Ritzhaupt A., Wood I.S., Jackson A.A., Moran B.J. and Shirazi-Beechey S.P. (1998). Isolation of a RT-PCR fragment from human colon and sheep rumen RNA with nucleotide sequence similarity to human and rat urea transporter isoforms. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 26, 40.
Sannes R.A., Messman M.A. and Vagnoni D.B. (2002). Form of rumen-degradable carbohydrate and nitrogen on microbial protein synthesis and protein efficiency of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 900-908.
Santoso B., Mwenya B., Sar C., Gamo Y., Kobayashi T., Morikawa R. and Takahashi J. (2004). Effect of Yucca schidigera with or without nisin on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep fed silage and hay based diets. Anim. Sci. J. 6, 525-531.
SAS Institute. (2004). SAS®/STAT Software, Release 9.1. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC. USA.
Siddons R.C., Nolan J.V., Beever D.E. and MacRae J.C. (1985). Nitrogen digestion and metabolism in sheep consuming diets containing contrasting forms and levels of N. Br. J. Nutr. 54, 175-187.
Simmons N.L., Chaudhry A.S., Graham C., Scriven E.S., Thistlethwaite A., Smith C.P. and Stewar G.S. (2009). Dietary regulation of ruminal bovine UT-B urea transporter expression and localization.J. Anim. Sci. 87, 3288-3299.
Smith C.P. and Rousselet G. (2001). Facilitative urea transporters. J. Membr. Biol. 183, 1-14.
Stewart G.S. and Smith C.P. (2005). Urea nitrogen salvage mechanisms and their relevance to ruminants, non-ruminants and man. Nutr. Res. Rev. 18, 49-62.
Suarez B.J., Van Reenen C.G., Stockhofe N., Dijkstra J. and Gerrits W.J.J. (2007). Effect of roughage source and roughage to concentrate ratio on animal performance and rumen development in veal calves. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 2390-2403.
Sultan I.S. and Loerch C. (1992). Effects of protein and energy supplementation of wheat starw-based treatments on site and nutrient digestion and nitrogen metabolism of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 2228-2234.
Sun D., Wei Z.M., Bao L. and Masahiro O. (2008). Effects of total mixed ration with different forage to concentrate ratios on rumen index of dairy cows. Feed Res. 10, 47-50.
Thornton R.F. (1970). Factors affecting the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen in cattle. II. The plasma urea nitrogen concentration. Asian-australas J. Agric. Res. 21, 145-152.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B. and Lewis B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597.
Wahrmund J., de Araujo D.V., Hersom M. and Arthington J. (2007). Evaluation of optigen II as a source of rumen degradable protein for mature beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 28.
Wang J., Wang Li J.S., Wang S., Yao M. and Liu S. (2005). Effects of forage to concentrate ratio on pattern of rumen fermentation and performance of lactating dairy cows. Acta Vet. Zootech. Sin. 36(6), 569-573.
Woods W.R., Richardson H., Kruse K., Gallup W.D. and Tillman A.D. (1962). Further studies on the nutritive value of cotton seed meal for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 21, 284-289.